Schools Without Drugs


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Schools Without Drugs

A Plan for Us All

CONTENTS

WHAT CAN WE DO?

CHILDREN AND DRUGS

Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Fact Sheet: Drugs and Dependence
How Drug Use Develops Fact Sheet: Youth and Alcohol Effects of Drug Use Fact
Sheet: Cocaine: Crack Drug Use and Learning

A PLAN FOR ACTION

What Parents Can Do

Instilling Responsibility Supervising Activities Fact Sheet: Signs of
Drug Use Recognising Drug Use

What Schools Can Do

Assessing the Problem Enforcing Policy Seeing Policy Teaching About
Drug Prevention Fact Sheet: Tips for Selecting Drug Prevention Materials
Enlisting the Community's Help Fact Sheet: Legal Questions on Search and
Seizure Fact Sheet: Legal Questions on Suspension and Expulsion

What Students Can Do

Learning the Facts Helping to Fight Drug Use

What Communities Can Do

Providing Support Involving Law Enforcement

CONCLUSION

SPECIAL SECTIONS

Teaching About Drug Prevention

How the Law Can Help

Resources

Specific Drugs and Their Effects Sources of Information References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

WHAT CAN WE DO?

A Plan for Achieving Schools Without Drugs

PARENTS:

1. Teach standards of right and wrong, and demonstrate these standards
through personal example.

2. Help children to resist poor pressure to use alcohol and other drugs
by supervising their activities, knowing who their friends are, and talking
with them about their interests and problems.

3. Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When symptoms
are observed, respond promptly.

SCHOOLS:

4. Determine the extent and character of alcohol and other drug use and
monitor that use regularly.

5. Establish clear and specific rules regarding alcohol and other drug
use that include strong corrective actions.

6. Enforce established policies against drug use fairly and
consistently. Ensure adequate security measures to eliminate drugs from
school premises and school functions.

7. Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for
kindergarten through grade 12, teaching that drug use is wrong and harmful,
and supporting and strengthening resistance to drugs.

8. Reach out to the community for support and assistance in making the
school's anti-drug policy and program work. Develop collaborative
arrangements in which school personnel, parents, school boards, law
enforcement officers, treatment organisations, and private groups can work
together to provide necessary resources.

STUDENTS:

9. Learn about the effects of alcohol and other drug use, the reasons
why drugs are harmful, and ways to resist pressures to try drugs.

10. Use an understanding of the danger posed by alcohol and other drugs
to help other students avoid them. Encourage other students to resist drugs,
persuade those using drugs to seek help, and report those selling drugs to
parents and the school principal.

COMMUNITIES:

11. Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the expertise and
financial resources of community groups and agencies.

12. Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of drug
prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education. The police and courts
should have well-established relationships with the schools.

"I felt depressed and hurt all the time. I hated myself for the
way I hurt my parents and treated them so cruelly and for the way I treated
others. I hated myself the most, though, for the way I treated myself. I
would take drugs until I overdosed, and fell further and further behind in
school and work and relationships with others. I just didn't care anymore
whether I lived or died. I stopped going to school altogether .... I felt
constantly depressed and began having thoughts of suicide, which scared me a
lot! I didn't know where to turn..."

--Stewart, a high school student

CHILDREN AND DRUGS

When 13- to 18-year-olds were asked to name the biggest problem facing
young people today, drug use led the list. In 1987, 54 percent of teens cited
drugs as their greatest concern--up from 27 percent only 10 years earlier.

Eighty-nine percent of teens oppose legalisation of marijuana, and 77
percent believe it would be wrong to decriminalize the possession of small
amounts of marijuana.

Drugs and alcohol rank high on the list of topics that teens wish they
could discuss more with their parents--42 percent want more discussions with
parents about drugs, and 39 percent feel the need to talk about drinking.

--The Gallup Youth Surveys, 1987 and 1988

Adult's share this concern, ranking student drug use as the most
serious problem facing our nation's schools for the third consecutive year.

--20th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward Public
Schools, 1988

Children and Drugs

Americans have consistently identified drug use as being among the top
problems confronting the nation's schools. Yet many do not recognise the
degree to which their own children, their own schools, and their own
communities are at risk.

Research shows that drug use among children is 10 times more prevalent
than parents suspect. In addition, many students know that their parents do
not recognise the extent of drug use; as a result, some young people believe
that they can use drugs with impunity.

School administrators and teachers often are unaware that some of their
students are using and selling drugs on school property. As Ralph Egers,
former superintendent of schools in South Portland, Maine, put it, "We'd
like to think that our kids don't have this problem, but the brightest kid
from the best family in the community could have the problem."

The facts are:

* Drug use is not confined to young people in certain geographic areas
or from particular economic backgrounds; drug use affects young people
throughout the nation.

* Drugs are a serious problem not only among high school students but
among middle and elementary school students as well.

* Heavy drinking, defined as five or more drinks on one occasion, is
reported by 30 percent of high school seniors, and more than one-half are
occasional users of alcohol.

* All illegal drugs are dangerous; there is no such thing as safe or
responsible use of illegal drugs.

* Although drug trafficking is controlled by adults, the immediate
source of drugs for most students is other students.

Continuing misconceptions about the drug problem stand in the way of
corrective action. The following section outlines the nature and extent of
the problem and summaries the latest research on the effects of drugs on
students and schools.

Figure 1

Percentage of 6th Graders Who Report Peer Pressure to Try Drugs

Source: 1987 Weekly Reader Survey on Drugs and Drinking

Figure 2

Percentage of High School Seniors Who Have Used Cocaine

Source: Institute for Social Research 1991

Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Drug use is widespread among American schoolchildren. Although a
national study of high school seniors in 1991 shows that drug use among young
people is declining, the figures remain unacceptably high (see Figure 2). The
United States continues to have the highest rate of teenage drug use of any
nation in the industrialised world. Forty-four percent of high school seniors
have tried an illicit drug by the time they graduate. Alcohol is the most
widely used drug. By their senior year, 88 percent of students in the class
of 1991 had used alcohol; 78 percent had used alcohol in the past year and 54
percent had used it in the month prior to the survey. Thirty percent of
seniors surveyed reported at least one occasion of heavy drinking in the two
weeks prior to the survey--an occasion in which they had five or more drinks
in a row. Twenty-four percent of 1991 seniors reported using marijuana in the
past year, and 14 percent said they had used it at least once in the previous
month. Three and one-half percent of seniors indicated that they had used
cocaine in the past year. Three percent of seniors had used crack, and 1.5
percent had used it within the last year.

The drug problem affects all types of students. All regions and all
types of communities show high levels of drug use. Thirty percent of 1990
high school seniors in non metropolitan areas reported illicit drug use in
the previous year, while the rate for seniors in large metropolitan areas was
33 percent. Although higher proportions of males are involved in illicit drug
use, especially heavy drug use, the gap between the sexes is closing. The
extent to which high school seniors reported having used illicit drugs is
higher for whites than for blacks.

Initial use of alcohol and other drugs occurs at an increasingly early
age. Nineteen percent of seniors report they had initiated cigarette use by
sixth grade and 11 percent had used alcohol. Forty-four percent of 8th
graders have tried cigarettes, and 70 percent have at least tried alcohol.
Twenty-seven percent of 8th graders have got ten drunk at least once, and 13
percent report they have consumed five or more drinks in a row. Of the
illicit drugs, marijuana and inhalants show the earliest pattern of
initiation; about 2.8 percent of seniors had begun using both of these
substances by the 6th grade. The peak initiation rate is reached by 9th
grade. Peak initiation rates for cocaine and hallucinogens are reached in
10th and 11th grade with the initiation rate for nearly all drugs falling off
by 12th grade.

Fact Sheet

Drugs and Dependence

Drugs cause physical and emotional dependence. Users may develop a
craving for specific drugs, and their bodies may respond to the presence of
drugs in ways that lead to increased drug use.

* Regular users of drugs develop tolerance, a need to take larger doses
to get the same initial effect. They may respond by combining drugs,
frequently with devastating results. Many teenage drug users calling a
national cocaine hot line report that they take other drugs just to
counteract the unpleasant effects of cocaine.

* Certain drugs, such as opiates, barbiturates, alcohol, and nicotine,
create physical dependence. With prolonged use, these drugs become part of
the body chemistry. When a regular user stops taking the drug, the body
experiences the physiological trauma known as withdrawal.

* Psychological dependence occurs when taking drugs becomes the centre
of the user's life. Among children, psychological dependence erodes school
performance and can destroy ties to family and friends, as well as cause the
child to abandon outside interests, values, and goals. The child goes from
taking drugs to feel good, to taking them to keep from feeling bad. Over
time, drug use itself heightens the bad feelings and can leave the user
suicidal. More than half of all adolescent suicides are drug-related.

* Drugs can remain in the body long after use has stopped. The extent
to which a drug is retained in the body depends on the drug's chemical
composition, that is, whether it is fat-soluble. Fat-soluble drugs such as
marijuana and phencyclidine (PCP) seek out and settle in the fatty tissues.
As a result, they build up in the fatty parts of the body such as the brain.
Such accumulations of drugs and their slow release over time may have effects
on the mind and body weeks or even months after drug use has stopped.

How Drug Use Develops

Social influences play a key role in making drug use attractive to
children.

The first temptations to use drugs may come in social situations in the
form of pressures to "act grown up" by smoking cigarettes or using
alcohol or marijuana.

A 1987 Weekly Reader survey found that television and movies had the
greatest influence on fourth through sixth graders in making drugs and
alcohol seem attractive; the second greatest influence was other children.

The survey offers insights into why students take drugs. Children in
grades four through six think that the most important reason for using
alcohol and marijuana is to "fit in with others," followed closely
by a desire "to feel older." Students also have incomplete or inaccurate
information. For example, only 44 percent of sixth graders polled in a
national survey think alcohol should be called a drug. This finding
reinforces the need for prevention programs beginning in the early
grades--programs that focus on teaching children the facts about drugs and
alcohol and the skills to resist peer pressure to use them.

Students who turn to more potent drugs usually do so after first using
cigarettes and alcohol, and then marijuana. Initial attempts may not produce
a "high"; however, students who continue to use drugs learn that
drugs can change their thoughts and feelings. The greater a student's
involvement with marijuana, the more likely it is the student will begin to
use other drugs in conjunction with marijuana.

Drug use frequently progresses in stages--from occasional use, to
regular use, to multiple drug use, and ultimately to total dependency. With
each successive stage, drug use intensifies, becomes more varied, and results
in increasingly debilitating effects.

But this progression is not inevitable. Drug use can be stopped at any
stage. However, the more deeply involved children are with drugs, the more
difficult it is for them to stop. The best way to fight drug use is to begin
prevention efforts before children start using drugs. Prevention efforts that
focus on young children are the most effective means to fight drug use.

Fact Sheet

Youth and Alcohol

Alcohol is the number one drug problem among youth. The easy
availability, widespread acceptability, and extensive promotion of alcoholic
beverages within our society make alcohol the most widely used and abused
drug.

* Alcohol use is widespread. By their senior year of high school nearly
90 percent of students will have tried alcoholic beverages. Despite a legal
drinking age of 21, junior and senior high school students drink 35 percent
of all wine coolers sold in the United States. They also drink an estimated
1.1 billion bottles and cans of beer each year.

* Drinking has acute effects on the body. The heavy, fast-paced
drinking that young people commonly engage in quickly alters judgement,
vision, coordination, and speech and often leads to dangerous risk-taking
behaviour. Because young people have lower body weight than adults, youth
absorb alcohol into their blood system faster than adults and exhibit greater
impairment for longer periods of time. Alcohol use not only increases the
likelihood of being involved in an accident, it increases the risk of serious
injury in an accident because of its harmful effects on numerous parts of the
body.

* Alcohol-related highway accidents are the principal cause of death
among young people ages 15 through 24. Alcohol use is the primary cause of
traffic accidents involving teenage drivers. Furthermore, about half of all
youthful deaths in drowning, fires, suicide, and homicide are
alcohol-related.

* Any alcoholic beverage can be misused. Contrary to popular belief,
drinking beer or wine can have effects similar to drinking "hard"
liquor. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine, or a bottle of wine cooler have
about the same amount of ethyl alcohol as a drink made with liquor. Those who
drive "under the influence" are most likely to have been drinking
beer.

* Early alcohol use is associated with subsequent alcohol dependence
and related health problems. Youth who use alcohol at a younger age are more
likely to use alcohol heavily and to experience alcohol-related problems
affecting their relationships with family and friends by late adolescence.
Their school performance is likely to suffer, and they are more likely to be
truant. They are also more likely to abuse other drugs and to get in trouble
with the law, or, if they are girls, to become pregnant.

Effects of Drug Use

The drugs students are taking today are more potent, more dangerous,
and more addictive than ever.

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of drugs. Drugs
threaten normal development in a number of ways:

* Drugs can interfere with memory, sensation, and perception. They
distort experiences and cause a loss of self-control that can lead users to
harm themselves and others.

* Drugs interfere with the brain's ability to take in, sort, and
synthesise information. As a result, sensory information runs together,
providing new sensations while blocking normal ability to understand the
information received.

* Drugs can have an insidious effect on perception; for example,
cocaine and amphetamines often give users a false sense of functioning at
their best while on the drug.

Drug suppliers have responded to the increasing demand for drugs by
developing new strains, producing reprocessed, purified drugs, and using
underground laboratories to create more powerful forms of illegal drugs.
Consequently, users are exposed to heightened or unknown levels of risk.

* The marijuana produced today is from 5 to 20 times stronger than that
available as recently as 10 years ago. Regular use by adolescents has been
associated with an "a motivational syndrome," characterised by
apathy and loss of goals. Research has shown that severe psychological damage,
including paranoia and psychosis, can occur when marijuana contains 2 percent
THC, its major psychoactive ingredient. Since the early 1980s, most marijuana
has contained from 4 to 6 percent THC-two or three times the amount capable
of causing serious damage.

* Crack is a purified and highly addictive form of cocaine.

* Phencyclidine (PCP), first developed as an animal tranquilliser, has
unpredictable and often violent effects. Often children do not even know that
they are using this drug when PCP-laced parsley in cigarette form is passed
off as marijuana, or when PCP in crystal form is sold as lysergic acid (LSD).

* Some of the "designer" drugs, slight chemical variations of
existing illegal drugs, have been known to cause permanent brain damage with
a single dose.

Further information about drugs is presented in the Resources Section,
pages 61-71.

Fact Sheet

Cocaine: Crack

Cocaine is readily available. Fifty-one percent of seniors say it would
be easy for them to get cocaine. Most alarming is the ready availability of
cocaine in a cheap but potent form called crack or rock. Crack is a purified
form of cocaine that is smoked.

* Crack is inexpensive to try. Crack is available for as little as $5.
As a result, the drug is affordable to many potential users, including high
school and even elementary school students.

* Crack is easy to use. It is sold in pieces resembling small white
gravel or soap chips and is sometimes pressed into small pellets. Crack can
be smoked in a pipe or put into a cigarette. The visible effects disappear
within minutes after smoking, so detection is difficult.

* Crack is extremely addictive. Crack is far more addictive than heroin
or barbiturates. Because crack is smoked, it is quickly absorbed into the
blood stream. It produces a feeling of extreme euphoria, peaking within
seconds. Repeated use of crack can lead to addiction within a few days.

* Crack leads to crime and severe psychological disorders. Many youths,
once addicted, have turned to stealing, prostitution, and drug dealing in
order to support their habit. Continued use can produce violent behaviour and
psychotic states similar to schizophrenia.

* Crack is deadly. Cocaine in any form, including crack, can cause
sudden death from cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.

Drug Use and Learning

Drugs erode the self-discipline and motivation necessary for learning.
Pervasive drug use among students creates a climate in the schools that is
destructive to learning.

Research shows that drug use can cause a decline in academic
performance. This has been found to be true for students who excelled in
school prior to drug use as well as for those with academic or behavioural
problems prior to use. According to one study, students using marijuana were
twice as likely to average D's and F's as other students. The decline in
grades often reverses when drug use is stopped.

Drug use is closely tied to being truant and dropping out of school.
High school seniors who are heavy drug users are more than three times as
likely to skip school as nonusers. About one-fifth of heavy users skipped
three or more school days a month, more than six times the truancy rate of
nonusers. In a Philadelphia study, dropouts were almost twice as likely to be
frequent drug users as were high school graduates; four in five dropouts used
drugs regularly.

Drug use is associated with crime and misconduct that disrupt the
maintenance of an orderly and safe school atmosphere conducive to learning.
Drugs not only transform schools into marketplaces for dope deals, they also
lead to the destruction of property and to classroom disorder. Among high
school seniors, heavy drug users were more than three times as likely to
vandalise school property and twice as likely to have been involved in a
fight at school or at work as nonusers. Students on drugs create a climate of
apathy, disruption, and disrespect for others. For example, among teenage
callers to a national cocaine hot line, 32 percent reported that they sold
drugs, and 64 percent said that they stole from family, friends, or employers
to buy drugs. A drug-ridden environment is a strong deterrent to learning not
only for drug users but for other students as well.

A PLAN FOR ACTION

To combat student drug use most effectively, the entire community must
be involved: parents, schools, students, law enforcement authorities,
religious groups, social service agencies, and the media. They all must
transmit a single consistent message that drug use is wrong and dangerous,
and it will not be tolerated. This message must be reinforced through strong,
consistent law enforcement and disciplinary measures.

The following recommendations and examples describe actions that can be
taken by parents, schools, students, and communities to stop drug use. These
recommendations are derived from research and from the experiences of schools
throughout the country. They show that the drug problem can be overcome.

WHAT PARENTS CAN DO

* Teach standards of right and wrong, and demonstrate these standards
through personal example.

* Help children to resist peer pressure to use alcohol and other drugs
by supervising their activities, knowing who their friends are, and talking
with them about their interests and problems.

* Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When symptoms are
observed, respond promptly.

Parents

Instilling Responsibility

Recommendation #1:

Teach standards of right and wrong and demonstrate these standards
through personal example.

Children who are brought up to value individual responsibility and self-discipline
and to have a clear sense of right and wrong are less likely to try drugs
than those who are not. Parents can help to instil these values by:

* Setting a good example for children and not using drugs themselves.

* Explaining to their children at an early age that drug use is wrong,
harmful, and unlawful, and reinforcing this teaching throughout adolescence.

* Encouraging self-discipline by giving children regular duties and
holding them accountable for their actions.

* Establishing standards of behaviour concerning drugs, drinking,
dating, curfews, and unsupervised activities, and enforcing them consistently
and fairly.

* Encouraging their children to stand by their convictions when
pressured to use drugs.

Central Elementary Gulfport, Mississippi

Every afternoon after the last bell rings, the POP (Parents on Patrol)
Team springs into action. With their T-shirts proclaiming "Drug-Free
Body" and whistles at the ready, their mission is to ensure that all
children get off the school grounds and on their way home safely. POPs are
also posted several blocks away from campus. They send a strong signal to any
dealers and drug users who may be in the neighbourhood (which has the highest
rate of drug-related crime in Gulfport), that these children have higher
goals, healthier aspirations.

The POP team is just one way parents are involved in the drug
prevention program at Central Elementary. Spurred, in part, by the high rate
of drug activity in the school's surrounding neighbourhood, the Central staff
made an early commitment to involving parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles
and other care givers in all aspects of the program's development.

The school helped train parents to go into the community--to churches
and social centers--to teach drug awareness and provide child rearing
classes. Newsletters and home visits support Central's outreach.

Inherent in the school's drug prevention program is the philosophy that
the best prevention is providing healthy, challenging activities for the
mind. High on Checkers is just one such program. Central checker players not
only compete within the school, they take field trips to the "checker
capital of the world" 70 miles from Gulfport. Central champions have
even played in tournaments in Russia and England. Parent volunteers make
travel possible by seeking donations, holding fund-raising events, and
serving as chaperons.

Teachers and parents also devote time and energy to other activities
such as the highly acclaimed Boys Choir, a problem-solving club called the
Think Tank, and the Central Student Council, one of the few elementary
councils in Mississippi.

Parents may also volunteer to read to students, to help with the
physical education program, or to be a "buddy" in the cafeteria.
Several parents have acknowledged that the Central drug-free efforts have
made a positive difference not only in the lives of their children, but in
their own lives as well.

Parents

Supervising Activities

Recommendation #2:

Help children to resist peer pressure to use alcohol and other drugs by
supervising their activities, knowing who their friends are, and talking with
them about their interests and problems.

When parents take an active interest in their children's behaviour,
they provide the guidance and support children need to resist drugs. Parents
can do this by:

* Knowing their children's whereabouts, activities, and friends.

* Working to maintain and improve family communications and listening
to their children.

* Being able to discuss drugs knowledgeably. It is far better for
children to obtain their information from their parents than from their peers
or on the street.

* Communicating regularly with the parents of their children's friends
and sharing their knowledge about drugs with other parents.

* Being selective about their children's viewing of television and
movies that portray drug use as glamorous or exciting.

In addition, parents can work with the school in its efforts to fight
drugs by:

* Encouraging the development of a school policy with a clear no-use
message.

* Supporting administrators who are tough on drugs.

* Assisting the school in monitoring students' attendance and planning
and chaperoning school-sponsored activities.

* Communicating regularly with the school regarding their children's
behaviour.

Fact Sheet

Signs of Drug Use

Changing patterns of performance, appearance, and behaviour may signal
use of drugs. The items in the first category listed below provide direct
evidence of drug use; the items in the other categories offer signs that may
indicate drug use. Adults should watch for extreme changes in children's
behaviour, changes that together form a pattern associated with drug use.

Signs of Drugs and Drug Paraphernalia

* Possession of drug-related paraphernalia such as pipes, rolling
papers, small decongestant bottles, eye drops, or small butane torches.

* Possession of drugs or evidence of drugs, such as pills, white
powder, small glass vials, or hypodermic needles; peculiar plants or butts,
seeds, or leaves in ash trays or in clothing pockets.

* Odour of drugs, smell of incense or other "cover-up"
scents.

Identification with Drug Culture

* Drug-related magazines, slogans on clothing.

* Conversation and jokes that are preoccupied with drugs.

* Hostility in discussing drugs.

* Collection of beer cans.

Signs of Physical Deterioration

* Memory lapses, short attention span, difficulty in concentration.

* Poor physical coordination, slurred or incoherent speech.

* Unhealthy appearance, indifference to hygiene and grooming.

* Bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils.

Dramatic Changes in School Performance

* Marked downturn in student's grades--not just from C's to F's, but
from A's to B's and C's; assignments not completed.

* Increased absenteeism or tardiness.

Changes in Behaviour

* Chronic dishonesty (lying, stealing, cheating); trouble with the
police.

* Changes in friends, evasive ness in talking about new ones.

* Possession of large amounts of money.

* Increasing and inappropriate anger, hostility, irritability,
secretiveness.

* Reduced motivation, energy, self-discipline, self-esteem.

* Diminished interest in extracurricular activities and hobbies.

Parents Recognising Drug Use

Recommendation #3:

Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When symptoms are
observed, respond promptly.

Parents are in the best position to recognise early signs of drug use
in their children. To inform and involve themselves, parents should take the
following steps:

* Learn about the extent of the drug problem in their community and in
their children's schools.

* Learn how to recognise signs of drug use.

* Meet with parents of their children's friends or classmates about the
drug problem at their school. Establish a means of sharing information to determine
which children are using drugs and who is supplying them.

Parents who suspect their children are using drugs often must deal with
their own emotions of anger, resentment, and guilt. Frequently they deny the
evidence and postpone confronting their children. Yet, the earlier a drug
problem is detected and faced, the less difficult it is to overcome. If
parents suspect that their children are using drugs, they should take the
following steps:

* Devise a plan of action. Consult with school officials and other
parents.

* Discuss their suspicions with their children in a calm, objective
manner. Do not confront a child while he or she is under the influence of
alcohol or other drugs.

* Impose disciplinary measures that help remove the child from those
circumstances where drug use might occur.

* Seek advice and assistance from drug treatment professionals and from
a parent group. (For further information, consult the Resources Section,
pages 61-81.)

WHAT SCHOOLS CAN DO

* Determine the extent and character of alcohol and other drug use and
monitor that use regularly.

* Establish clear and specific rules regarding alcohol and other drug
use that include strong corrective actions.

* Enforce established policies against alcohol and other drug use
fairly and consistently. Ensure adequate security measures to eliminate drugs
from school premises and school functions.

* Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for kindergarten
through grade 12, teaching that drug use is wrong and harmful, and supporting
and strengthening resistance to drugs.

* Reach out to the community for support and assistance in making the
school's anti-drug policy and program work. Develop collaborative
arrangements in which school personnel, parents, school boards, law
enforcement officers, treatment organisations, and private groups can work
together to provide necessary resources.

Schools Assessing the Problem

Recommendation #4:

Determine the extent and character of alcohol and other drug use and
monitor that use regularly.

School personnel should be informed about the extent of drugs in their
school. School boards, superintendents, and local public officials should
support school administrators in their efforts to assess the extent of the
drug problem and to combat it.

To guide and evaluate effective drug prevention efforts, schools need
to take the following actions:

* Conduct anonymous surveys of students and school personnel and
consult with local law enforcement officials to identify the extent of the drug
problem.

* Bring together school personnel to identify areas where drugs are
being used and sold.

* Meet with parents to help determine the nature and extent of drug
use.

* Maintain records on drug use and sale in the school over time, for
use in evaluating and improving prevention efforts. In addition to
self-reported drug use patterns, records may include information on
drug-related arrests and school discipline problems.

* Inform the community, in straightforward language, of the results of
the school's assessment of the drug problem.

Roncalli High School Manitowoc, Wisconsin

Before Roncalli, a Catholic coed high school, initiated its no-use drug
policy in the early 1980s, it was not uncommon after athletic events to see a
parking lot full of empty beer cans and to hear reports of students charged
with driving while intoxicated.

After an alcohol-related teenage traffic fatality jolted the community,
a district-wide survey was taken that showed widespread drug and alcohol use
by high school students. The Roncalli student body was no exception. In
response, an action plan was developed by students, parents, and the
community that calls for referral and treatment on the first offence for any
student found in the possession of or under the influence of alcohol or drugs
at any Roncalli High School activity. The consequence for a second offence is
dismissal.

Since this program's inception 13 years ago, only one student has
declined referral and treatment choosing instead to leave school. Tracking
surveys each year help the faculty and students to monitor progress in
achieving the school's drug-free goal.

Positive peer pressure and team spirit are important ingredients in
Roncalli's anti-drug program. The student group RADD (Roncalli Against
Drinking and Drugs) operates as an arm of the Student Senate to organise and
coordinate drug-free activities through the year. More than 90 percent of the
650 students at Roncalli High participate in RADD's activities that include
dances, open gym, Trivial Pursuit contests, Pictionary night, video
screenings, and other after-school events.

A Peer Helpers program matches all 120 incoming freshmen with peers who
provide information throughout the year on Roncalli's anti-drug policies and
program.

Concerned Persons Groups also meet at Roncalli to offer extra peer
support to students who have a friend or family member using drugs or who may
need a place to talk and find assistance in confidence. The groups meet
during the school day on alternating schedules so that all may have the
option to attend.

Parents, too, are actively involved in the school program. The Roncalli
Parents Communication Network has commitments from more than 60 percent of
the Roncalli parents to keep their homes drug-free and to be present when students
visit.

Schools

Setting Policy

Recommendation #5:

Establish clear and specific rules regarding alcohol and other drug use
that include strong corrective actions.

School policies should clearly establish that drug use, possession, and
sale on the school grounds and at school functions will not be tolerated.
These policies should apply both to students and to school personnel, and may
include prevention, intervention, treatment, and disciplinary measures.

School policies should have the following characteristics:

* Specify what constitutes a drug offence by defining (1) illegal
substances and paraphernalia; (2) the area of the school's jurisdiction, for
example, the school property, its surroundings, and all school-related
events, such as proms and football games; and (3) the types of violations
(drug possession, use, and sale).

* State the consequences for violating school policy; punitive action
should be linked to referral for treatment and counselling. Measures that schools
have found effective in dealing with first-time offenders include the
following:

-- A required meeting of parents and the student with school officials,
concluding with a contract signed by the student and parents in which they
both acknowledge a rug problem and the student agrees to stop using and to
participate in drug counselling or a rehabilitation program.

-- Suspension, assignment to an alternative school, in-school
suspension, after-school or Saturday detention with close supervision, and demanding
academic assignments.

-- Referral to a drug treatment expert or counsel or.

-- Notification of police.

Penalties for repeat offenders and for sellers may include expulsion,
legal action, and referral for treatment.

* Describe procedures for handling violations, including the following:

-- Legal issues associated with disciplinary actions (confidentiality,
due process, and search and seizure) and their application.

-- Circumstances under which incidents should be reported and the
responsibilities and procedures for reporting incidents, including the
identification of the authorities to be contacted.

-- Procedures for notifying parents when their child is suspected of
using drugs or is caught with drugs.

-- Procedures for notifying police.

* Enlist legal counsel to ensure that all policy is in compliance with
applicable Federal, State, and local laws.

* Build community support for the policy. Hold open meetings where
views can be aired and differences resolved.

Schools

Enforcing Policy

Recommendation #6:

Enforce established policies against alcohol and other drug use fairly
and consistently. Ensure adequate security measures to eliminate drugs from
school premises and school functions.

Ensure that everyone understands the policy and the procedures that
will be followed in case of infractions. Make copies of the school policy
available to all parents, teachers, and students, and publicise the policy
throughout the school and community.

Impose strict security measures to bar access to intruders and to
prohibit student drug trafficking. Enforcement policies should correspond to
the severity of the school's drug problem. For example:

* Officials can require students to carry hall passes, supervise school
grounds and hallways, and secure assistance of law enforcement officials,
particularly to help monitor areas around the school.

* For a severe drug problem, officials can use security personnel to
monitor closely all school areas where drug sales and use are known to occur;
issue mandatory identification badges for school staff and students; request
the assistance of local police to help stop drug dealing; and, depending on
applicable law, develop a policy that permits periodic searches of student
lockers.

Review enforcement practices regularly to ensure that penalties are
uniformly and fairly applied.

* Consider implementing an alternative program for students who have
been suspended for drug use or possession. Some districts have developed
off-campus programs to enable suspended students to continue their education
in a more tightly structured environment. These programs may be offered
during the day or in the evening, and may offer counselling as well as an
academic curriculum. Other districts have successfully used a probationary
alternative that combined a short-term in-school suspension with requirements
for drug testing and participation in support groups as a condition of
returning to the classroom.

Lawrenceville Middle School Lawrenceville, Georgia

Ten years ago, Lawrenceville, Georgia, was a rural community outside
Atlanta. Today it is a full-fledged suburb, and one of the nation's
fastest-growing. Lawrenceville Middle School, responding to rapid changes in
the community, did not wait for a crisis to begin thinking about the drug education
needs of its 1100 students. It conducted a survey in 1981 to use as a
benchmark to measure drug-free progress in subsequent years and to help
define an appropriate program--the first in Gwinnett County--for sixth-,
seventh- and eighth-graders.

The Lawrenceville program emphasises five prevention strategies:
education, life and social skills, healthy alternatives, risk factor
reduction, and environmental change. While annual surveys help the faculty
and parents assess its effectiveness, they are not the only way they measure
effectiveness. Regular informal assessments and day-today faculty observation
help to fine tune the program from year to year and suggest any immediate
changes required. A case in point: when teachers began to observe an increase
in tobacco use, particularly smokeless tobacco use, they formed a committee
that included parents and administrators and came up with a plan to include
more information in the curriculum on the harmful effects of tobacco and more
up-to-date materials in the media centre. They also decided to implement a
no-tobacco use policy for the school staff. The following year, incidents of
student tobacco use decreased dramatically.

Parents, students, and teachers attribute much of Lawrenceville's drug
education success to its alternative program, STRIDE, (Student/Teacher
Resource Institute for Drug Education), a unique concept that has captured
the attention--and drug-free pledges--of more than 80 percent of
Lawrenceville's students.

STRIDE's leadership team--composed of seventh-and eighth-graders-meets
during the summer to plan activities for the upcoming year. A program
featuring 10 to 12 major events is outlined at the summer planning session.
STRIDE leaders meet regularly during the school year to implement the program
and delegate responsibilities. STRIDE events--held after school from 2:00 to
5:00--are widely publicised by STRIDE members. Events include programs by
visiting athletes who qualify as role models, dances, videos, plays, speakers
from the community, and special sports events.

Schools

Teaching About Drug Prevention

Recommendation # 7:

Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for kindergarten
through grade 12, teaching that drug use is wrong and harmful, and supporting
and strengthening resistance to drugs.

A model program would have these main objectives:

* To value and maintain sound personal health.

* To respect laws and rules prohibiting drugs.

* To resist pressures to use drugs.

* To promote student activities that are drug free and offer healthy
avenues for student interests.

In developing a program, school staff should take the following steps:

* Determine curriculum content appropriate for the school's drug
problem and grade levels.

* Base the curriculum on an understanding of why children try drugs in
order to teach them how to resist pressures to use drugs.

* Review existing materials for possible adaptation. State and national
organizations--and some lending libraries--that have an interest in drug
prevention make available lists of materials.

In implementing a program, school staff should take the following
steps:

* Include students in all grades. Effective drug education is
cumulative.

* Teach about drugs in health education classes, and reinforce this
curriculum with appropriate materials in classes such as social studies and
science.

* Develop expertise in drug prevention through training. Teachers
should be knowledgeable about drugs, personally committed to opposing drug
use, and skilled at eliciting participation by students in drug prevention
efforts.

(For more detailed information on topics and learning activities to
incorporate in a drug prevention program, see pages 44-49.)

Fact Sheet

Tips for Selecting Drug Prevention Materials

In evaluating drug prevention materials, keep the following points in
mind:

Check the date of publication. Material published before 1980 may be
outdated; even recently published materials may be inaccurate.

Look for "warning flag" phrases and concepts. The following
expressions, many of which appear frequently in "pro-drug"
material, falsely imply that there is a "safe" use of mind-altering
drugs: experimental use, recreational use, social use, controlled use,
responsible use, use/abuse.

Mood-altering is a deceptive euphemism for mind-altering.

The implication of the phrase mood-altering is that only temporary
feelings are involved. The fact is that mood changes are biological changes
in the brain.

"There are no 'good' or 'bad' drugs, just improper use."

This is a popular semantic camouflage in pro-drug literature. It
confuses young people and minimises the distinct chemical differences among
substances.

"The child's own decision."

Parents cannot afford to leave such hazardous choices to their
children. It is the parents' responsibility to do all in their power to
provide the information and the protection to assure their children a
drug-free childhood and adolescence.

Be alert for contradictory messages. Many authors give a pro-drug
message and then cover their tracks by including "cautions" about
how to use drugs.

Make certain that the health consequences revealed in current research
are adequately described. Literature should make these facts clear: The high
potency of marijuana on the market today makes it more dangerous than ever.
THC, a psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, is fat-soluble, and its
accumulation in the body has many adverse biological effects. Cocaine can
cause death and is one of the most addictive drugs known. It takes less
alcohol to produce impairment in youths than in adults.

Demand material that sets positive standards of behaviour for children.
The message conveyed must be an expectation that children can say no to
drugs. The publication and its message must provide the information and must
support family involvement to reinforce the child's courage to stay drug
free.

A fuller discussion of curriculum selection is offered in Drug
Prevention Curricula: A Guide to Selection and Implementation. The guide is
published by the U.S. Department of Education and is available from the
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, Box 2345 Rockville
MD 20852.

Schools

Enlisting the Community's Help

Recommendation #8:

Reach out to the community for support and assistance in making the
school's anti-drug policy and program work. Develop collaborative
arrangements in which school personnel, parents, school boards, law
enforcement officers, treatment organisations, and private groups can work
together to provide necessary resources.

School officials should recognise that they cannot solve the drug
problem by themselves. They need to enlist the community's support for their
efforts by taking the following actions:

* Increase community understanding of the problem through meetings,
media coverage, and education programs.

* Build public support for the policy; develop agreement on the goals
of a school drug policy, including prevention and enforcement goals.

* Educate the community about the effects and extent of the drug
problem.

* Strengthen contacts with law enforcement agencies through discussions
about the school's specific drug problems and ways they can assist in drug
education and enforcement.

* Call on local professionals, such as physicians and pharmacists, to
share their expertise on drug abuse as class lecturers.

* Mobilise the resources of community groups and local businesses to
support the program.

Fact Sheet

Legal Questions on Search and Seizure

In 1985, the Supreme Court for the first time analysed the application
in the public school setting of the Fourth Amendment prohibition of
unreasonable searches and seizures. The Court sought to craft a rule that
would balance the need of school authorities to maintain order and the
privacy rights of students. The questions in this section summarise the
decisions of the Supreme Court and of lower Federal courts. School officials
should consult with legal counsel in formulating their policies.

What legal standard applies to school officials who search students and
their possessions for drugs?

The Supreme Court has held that school officials may institute a search
if there are "reasonable grounds" to believe that the search will
reveal evidence that the student has violated or is violating either the law
or the rules of the school.

Do school officials need a search warrant to conduct a search for
drugs?

No, not if they are carrying out the search independent of the police
and other law enforcement officials. A more stringent legal standard may
apply if law enforcement officials are involved in the search.

How extensive can a search be?

The scope of the permissible search will depend on whether the measures
used during the search are reasonably related to the purpose of the search
and are not excessively intrusive in light of the age and sex of the student
being searched. The more intrusive the search, the greater the justification
that will be required by the courts.

Do school officials have to stop a search when they find the object of
the search?

Not necessarily. If a search reveals items suggesting the presence of
other evidence of crime or misconduct, the school official may continue the
search. For example, if a teacher is justifiably searching a student's purse
for cigarettes and finds rolling papers, it will be reasonable (subject to
any local policy to the contrary) for the teacher to search the rest of the
purse for evidence of drugs.

Can school officials search student lockers?

Reasonable grounds to believe that a particular student locker contains
evidence of a violation of the law or school rules will generally justify a
search of that locker. In addition, some courts have upheld written school
policies that authorise school officials to inspect student lockers at any
time.

Fact Sheet

Legal Questions on Suspension and Expulsion

The following questions and answers briefly describe several Federal
requirements that apply to the use of suspension and expulsion as
disciplinary tools in public schools. These may not reflect all laws, policies,
and judicial precedents applicable to any given school district. School
officials should consult with legal counsel to determine the application of
these laws in their schools and to ensure compliance with all legal
requirements.

What Federal procedural requirements apply to suspension or expulsion?

* The Supreme Court has held that students facing suspension or
expulsion from school are entitled under the U.S. Constitution to the basic
due process protections of notice and an opportunity to be heard. The nature
and formality of the "hearing" to be provided depend on the
severity of the sanction being imposed.

* A formal hearing is not required when a school seeks to suspend a
student for 10 days or less. Due process in that situation requires only
that:

-- the school inform the student, either orally or in writing, of the
charges and of the evidence to support those charges.

-- the school give the student an opportunity to deny the charges and
present his or her side of the story.

-- as a general rule, the notice to the student and a rudimentary
hearing should precede a suspension unless a student's presence poses a
continuing danger to persons or property or threatens to disrupt the academic
process. In such cases, the notice and rudimentary hearing should follow as
soon as possible after the student's removal.

More formal procedures may be required for suspensions longer than 10
days and for expulsions. In addition, Federal law and regulations establish
special rules governing suspensions and expulsions of students with
disabilities.

* States and local school districts may require additional procedures.

Can students be suspended or expelled from school for use, possession,
or sale of drugs?

Generally, yes. A school may suspend or expel students in accordance
with the terms of its discipline policy. A school policy may provide for
penalties of varying severity, including suspension or expulsion, to respond
to drug-related offences. It is helpful to be explicit about the types of
offences that will be punished and about the penalties that may be imposed
for particular types of offences (e.g., use, possession, or sale of drugs).
Generally, State and local law will determine the range of sanctions
permitted.

WHAT STUDENTS CAN DO

* Learn about the effects of drug use, the reasons why drugs are
harmful, and ways to resist pressures to try drugs.

* Use an understanding of the danger posed by drugs to help other
students avoid them. Encourage other students to resist drugs, persuade those
using drugs to seek help, and report those selling drugs to parents and the
school principal.

Students

Learning the Facts

Recommendation #9:

Learn about the effects of alcohol and other drug use, the reasons why
drugs are harmful, and ways to resist pressures to try drugs. Students can
arm themselves with the knowledge to resist drug use in the following ways:

* Learning about the effects and risks of drugs.

* Learning the symptoms of drug use and the names of organisations and
individuals available to help when friends or family members are in trouble.

* Understanding the pressures to use drugs and ways to counteract

* Knowing the school rules on drugs and ways to help make the school
policy work.

* Knowing the school procedures for reporting drug offences.

* Knowing the laws on drug use and the penalties--for example, for
driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs--and understanding how
the laws protect individuals and society.

* Developing skill in communicating their opposition to drugs and their
resolve to avoid drug use.

R.H. Watkins High School of Jones County, Mississippi, has developed
this pledge setting forth the duties and responsibilities of student
counsellors in its peer counselling program.

Responsibility Pledge for a Peer Counsel or R.H. Watkins High School

As a drug education peer counsel or you have the opportunity to help
the youth of our community develop to their full potential without the
interference of illegal drug use. It is a responsibility you must not take
lightly. Therefore, please read the following responsibilities you will be
expected to fulfil next school year and discuss them with your parents or
guardians.

Responsibilities of a Peer Counsel or

* Understand and be able to clearly state your beliefs and attitudes
about drug use among teens and adults.

* Remain drug free.

* Maintain an average of C or better in all classes.

* Maintain a citizenship average of B or better.

* Participate in some club or extracurricular activity that emphasises
the positive side of school life.

* Successfully complete training for the program, including, for
example, units on the identification and symptoms of drug abuse, history and
reasons for drug abuse, and the legal/economic aspects of drug abuse.

* Successfully present monthly programs on drug abuse in each of the
elementary and junior high schools of the Laurel City school system, and to
community groups, churches, and state wide groups as needed.

* Participate in rap sessions or individual counselling sessions with
Laurel City school students.

* Attend at least one Jones County Drug Council meeting per year,
attend the annual Drug Council Awards Banquet, work in the Drug Council Fair
exhibit and in any Drug Council workshops, if needed.

* Grades and credit for Drug Education will be awarded on successful
completion of and participation in all the above-stated activities.

Helping to Fight Drug Use

Recommendation # 10:

Use an understanding of the danger posed by alcohol and other drugs to
help other students avoid them. Encourage other students to resist drugs,
persuade those using drugs to seek help, and report those selling drugs to
parents and the school principal.

Although students are the primary victims of drug use in the schools,
drug use cannot be stopped or prevented unless students actively participate
in this effort.

Students can help fight alcohol and other drug use in the following
ways:

* Participating in discussions about the extent of the problem at their
own school.

* Supporting a strong school anti-drug policy and firm, consistent
enforcement of rules.

* Setting a positive example for fellow students and speaking
forcefully against drug use.

* Teaching other students, particularly younger ones, about the harmful
effects of drugs.

* Encouraging their parents to join with other parents to promote a
drug-free environment outside school. Some successful parent groups have been
started as a result of the pressure of a son or daughter was concerned about
drugs.

* Becoming actively involved in efforts to inform the community about
the drug problem.

* Joining in or starting a club or other activity to create positive,
challenging ways for young people to have fun without alcohol and other
drugs. Obtaining adult sponsorship for the group and publicising its
activities.

* Encouraging friends who have a drug problem to seek help and
reporting persons selling drugs to parents and the principal.

WHAT COMMUNITIES CAN DO

* Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the expertise and
financial resources of community groups and agencies.

* Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of drug
prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education. The police and courts
should have well-established relationships with the schools.

Communities

Providing Support

Recommendation # 11:

Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the expertise and
financial resources of community groups and agencies.

Law enforcement agencies and the courts can take the following actions:

* Provide volunteers to speak in the schools about the legal
ramifications of alcohol and other drug use. Officers can encourage students
to co-operate with them to stop drug use.

* Meet with school officials to discuss alcohol and other drug use in
the school, share information on the drug problem outside the school, and
help school officials in their investigations.

Social service and health agencies can take the following actions:

* Provide volunteers to speak in the school about the effects of drugs.

* Meet with parents to discuss symptoms of drug use and to inform them
about counselling resources.

* Provide the schools with health professionals to evaluate students
who may be potential drug users.

* Provide referrals to local treatment programs for students who are
using drugs.

* Establish and conduct drug counselling and support groups for
students.

Business leaders can take the following actions:

* Speak in the schools about the effects of alcohol and other drug use
on employment.

* Provide incentives for students who participate in drug prevention
programs and lead drug-free lives.

* Help schools obtain curriculum materials for their drug prevention
program.

* Sponsor drug-free activities for young people.

Parent groups can take the following actions:

* Mobilise others through informal discussions, door-to-door
canvassing, and school meetings to ensure that students get a consistent
no-drug message at home, at school, and in the community.

* Contribute volunteers to chaperone student parties and other
activities.

Print and broadcast media can take the following actions:

* Educate the community about the nature of the drug problem in their
schools.

* Publicise school efforts to combat the problem.

Project DARE Los Angeles, California

A collaborative effort begun in 1983 by the Los Angeles Police
Department and the Los Angeles Unified School District, Project DARE (Drug
Abuse Resistance Education) uses uniformed law enforcement officers in
classrooms as regular instructors. DARE officers use a drug curriculum that
teaches students resistance to peer pressure to use drugs, self-management
skills, and alternatives to drug use.

DARE reaches all Los Angeles Unified School District students from
kindergarten through junior high school. DARE has also spread outside Los
Angeles--police officers from 48 States and 1100 police agencies have
received DARE training. The DARE program is also being used by the Department
of Defence Dependants' Schools (military police serve as instructors) and at
Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools (BIA police officers serve as instructors).

In addition to providing classroom instruction, the program arranges
teacher orientation, officer-student interaction (on playgrounds and in
cafeterias, for example), and a parent education evening at which DARE
officers explain the program to parents and provide information about
symptoms of drug use and ways to increase family communication.

Studies have shown that DARE has improved students' attitudes about
themselves, increased their sense of responsibility for themselves and to
police, and strengthened their resistance to drugs. For example, before the
DARE program began, 51 percent of fifth grade students equated drug use with
having more friends. After training, only 8 percent reported this attitude.

DARE's parent program has also changed attitudes. Before DARE training,
61 percent of parents thought that there was nothing parents could do about
their children's use of drugs; only 5 percent reported this opinion after the
program. Before DARE training, 32 percent of parents thought that it was all
right for children to drink alcohol at a party as long as adults were
present. After DARE, no parents reported such a view.

Communities

Involving Law Enforcement

Recommendation # 12:

Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of drug
prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education. The police and courts
should have well-established relationships with the schools.

Community groups can take the following actions:

* Support school officials who take a strong position against alcohol
and other drug use.

* Support State and local policies to keep drugs and drug paraphernalia
away from schoolchildren.

* Build a community consensus in favour of strong penalties for persons
convicted of selling drugs, particularly for adults who have sold drugs to
children.

* Encourage programs to provide treatment to juvenile first-offenders
while maintaining tough penalties for repeat offenders and drug sellers.

Law enforcement agencies, in cooperation with schools, can take the
following actions:

* Establish the procedures each will follow in school drug cases.

* Provide expert personnel to participate in prevention activities from
kindergarten through grade 12.

* Secure areas around schools and see that the sale and use of drugs
are stopped.

* Provide advice and personnel to help improve security in the school
or on school premises.

Lincoln Junior High Washington, D.C.

Abraham Lincoln Junior High is a modern school located in an inner city
neighbourhood. Its ethnically diverse student body has 700 students,
representing more than 30 counties. The student population is 51 percent
black and 43 percent Hispanic. Many of the students coming to Lincoln for the
first time are newly arrived immigrants from war-torn countries.

Many of these newly arrived students are eager for acceptance by their
new peers and just as eager to adjust to American culture. Teachers are
keenly aware of the students' desire to fit in and realise that it is
important to let these children know that the majority of American children
do not use drugs nor is drug use an accepted behaviour. This is not an easy
task for the teachers to accomplish since the rampant drug activity going on
in their neighbourhood may suggest otherwise.

Lincoln's faculty-sponsored clubs are an important way teachers support
what they want the drug education program to accomplish. To participate in
any club, members must pledge to be drug free. Two clubs are designed to
develop confidence and reinforce social and citizenship skills. Other clubs
target special interests such as the Lincoln Chess Club and LatiNegro, a
student arts group. A summer Substance Abuse Prevention Education Camp
involves nearly 100 students in activities ranging from volley ball to dance
to field trips.

The staff also encourages students to help each other. The Peer Helper
Club, whose members are trained in substance abuse prevention and leadership
skills, publishes a handbook dispensing advice and a magazine, Cuidando
Nuestra Juventud (Taking Care of Our Youth), to which the entire student body
can contribute.

Another innovative way the school gets its message across is by having
the Student Response Team (SRT). This team is comprised of ninth graders
trained to become mediators. They advertise their services within the school
and get referrals from students and teachers. Students who use the services
of the SRT must agree in advance to abide by the result of the mediation process
or be expelled from school. Mediators meet with students in conflict at lunch
or are called from class if the matter is urgent. This multiracial team has
been effective in reducing violence and convincing peers that they don't have
to go to the streets to settle disputes.

CONCLUSION

Drugs threaten our children's lives, disrupt our schools, shatter
families, and, in some areas, shatter communities. Drug-related crimes
overwhelm our courts, social agencies, and police. This situation need not
and must not continue.

Across the United States, schools and communities have found ways to
turn the tide in the battle against drugs. The methods they have used and the
actions they have taken are described in this volume. We know what works. We
know that drug use can be stopped.

But we cannot expect the schools to do the job without the help of
parents, police, the courts, and other community groups. Drugs will be beaten
only when all of us work together to deliver a firm, consistent message to
those who would use or sell drugs: a message that illegal drugs will not be
tolerated. It is time to join in a national effort to achieve schools without
drugs.

SPECIAL SECTIONS

Teaching About Drug Prevention

How the Law Can Help

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

Sources of Information

References

TEACHING ABOUT DRUG PREVENTION

Teaching About Drug Prevention: Sample Topics and Learning Activities

An effective drug prevention curriculum covers a broad set of education
objectives which are outlined in greater detail in the Department of
Education's handbook Drug Prevention Curricula: A Guide to Selection and
Implementation. This section presents a model program for consideration by
State and local school authorities who have the responsibility to design a
curriculum that meets local needs and priorities. The program consists of
four objectives plus sample topics and learning activities.

OBJECTIVE #1: To value and maintain sound personal health; to
understand how drugs affect health.

An effective drug prevention education program instils respect for a
healthy body and mind and imparts knowledge of how the body functions, how
personal habits contribute to good health, and how drugs affect the body.

At the early elementary level, children learn how to care for their bodies.
Knowledge about habits, medicine, and poisons lays the foundation for
learning about drugs. Older children begin to learn about the drug problem
and study those drugs to which they are most likely to be exposed. The
curriculum for secondary school students is increasingly drug specific as
students learn about the effects of drugs on their bodies and on adolescent
maturation. Health consequences of drug use, including transmission of AIDS,
are emphasised.

Sample topics for elementary school:

* The roles of nutrition, medicine, and health care professionals in
preventing and treating disease.

* The difficulties of recognising which substances are safe to eat,
drink, or touch; ways to learn whether a substance is safe: by consulting
with an adult and by reading labels.

* The effects of poisons on the body; the effects of medicine on body
chemistry: the wrong drug may make a person ill.

* The nature of habits: their conscious and unconscious development.

Sample topics for secondary school:

* Stress: how the body responds to stress; how drugs increase stress.

* The chemical properties of drugs.

* The effects of drugs on the circulatory, digestive, nervous,
reproductive, and respiratory systems. The effects of drugs on adolescent
development.

* Patterns of substance abuse: the progressive effects of drugs on the
body and mind.

* What is addiction?

* How to get help for a drug or alcohol problem.

Children tend to be oriented toward the present and are likely to feel
invulnerable to the long-term effects of alcohol and other drugs. For this
reason, they should be taught about the short-term effects of drug use
(impact on appearance, alertness, and coordination) as well as about the
cumulative effects.

Sample learning activities for elementary school:

* Make a colouring book depicting various substances. Color only those
items that are safe to eat.

* Use puppets to dramatise what can happen when drugs are used.

* Write stories about what to do if a stranger offers candy, pills, or
a ride. Discuss options in class.

* Try, for a time, to break a bad habit. The teacher emphasises that it
is easier not to start a bad habit than to break one.

Sample learning activities for secondary school:

* Discuss the properties of alcohol and other drugs with community
experts: physicians, scientists, pharmacists, or law enforcement officers.

* Interview social workers in drug treatment centers. Visit an open
meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous. These activities
should be open only to mature students; careful preparation and debriefing
are essential.

* Research the drug problem at school, in the community, or in the
sports and entertainment fields.

* Design a true-false survey about drug myths and facts; conduct the
survey with classmates and analyse the results.

* Develop an accessible lending library on drugs, well stocked with
up-to-date and carefully chosen materials.

When an expert visits a class, both the class and the expert should be
prepared in advance. Students should learn about the expert's profession and
prepare questions to ask during the visit. The expert should know what the
objectives of the session are and how the session fits into previous and
subsequent learning. The expert should participate in a discussion or
classroom activity, not simply appear as a speaker.

OBJECTIVE #2: To respect laws and rules prohibiting drugs.

The program teaches children to respect rules and laws as the
embodiment of social values and as tools for protecting individuals and
society. It provides specific instruction about laws concerning drugs.

Students in the early grades learn to identify rules and to understand
their importance, while older students learn about the school drug code and
laws regulating drugs.

Sample topics for elementary school:

* What rules are and what would happen without them.

* What values are and why they should guide behaviour.

* What responsible behaviour is.

* Why it is wrong to take drugs.

Sample topics for secondary school:

* Student responsibilities in promoting a drug-free school.

* Local, State, and Federal laws on controlled substances; why these
laws exist and how they are enforced.

* Legal consequences of drug use; penalties for driving under the
influence of alcohol or drugs; the relationship between drugs and other
crimes.

* Personal and societal costs of drug use.

Sample learning activities for elementary school:

* Use stories and pictures to identify rules and laws in everyday life
(e.g., lining up for recess).

* Imagine how to get to school in the absence of traffic laws; try to
play a game that has no rules.

* Name some things that are important to adults and then list rules
they have made about these things. (This activity helps explain values.)

* Solve a simple problem (e.g., my sister hits me, or my math grades
are low). Discuss which solutions are best and why.

* Discuss school drug policies with the principal and other staff
members. Learn how students can help make the policy work better.

* Explain the connection between drug users, drug dealers, and drug
traffickers and law enforcement officers whose lives are placed at risk or
lost in their efforts to stop the drug trade.

Sample learning activities for secondary school:

* Resolve hypothetical school situations involving drug use. Analyse
the consequences for the school, other students, and the individuals
involved.

* Collect information about accidents, crimes, and other problems
related to alcohol and other drugs. Analyse how the problem might have been
prevented and how the incident affected the individuals involved.

* Conduct research projects. Interview members of the community such as
attorneys, judges, police officers, State highway patrol officers, and
insurance agents about the effects of alcohol and other drug use on the daily
lives of teenagers and their families.

* Draft a legislative petition proposing enactment of a State law on
drug use. Participate in a mock trial or legislative session patterned after
an actual trial or debate. Through these activities, students learn to
develop arguments on behalf of drug laws and their enforcement.

OBJECTIVE #3: To recognise and resist pressures to use drugs.

Social influences play a key role in encouraging children to try
alcohol and other drugs. Pressures to use drugs come from internal sources,
such as a child's desire to feel included in a group or to demonstrate
independence, and external influences, such as the opinions and example of
friends, older children and adults, and media messages.

Students must learn to identify these pressures. They must then learn
how to counteract messages to use drugs and gain practice in saying no. The
education program emphasises influences on behaviour, responsible decision
making, and techniques for resisting pressures to use drugs.

Sample topics for elementary through high school:

* The influence of popular culture on behaviour.

* The influence of peers, parents, and other important individuals on a
student's behaviour; ways in which the need to feel accepted by others
influences behaviour.

* Ways to make responsible decisions and to deal constructively with
disagreeable moments and pressures.

* Reasons for not taking drugs.

* Situations in which students may be pressured into using alcohol and
other drugs.

* Ways of resisting pressure to use drugs.

* Effects of drug use on family and friends, and benefits of resisting
pressure to use drugs.

Sample learning activities for elementary through high school:

* Describe recent personal decisions. In small groups, discuss what
considerations influenced the decision (e.g., opinions of family or friends,
beliefs, desire to be popular) and analyse choices and consequences.

* Examine ads for cigarettes, over-the-counter drugs, and alcohol,
deciding what images are being projected and whether the ads are accurate.

* Read stories about famous people who held to their beliefs in the
face of opposition. Students can discuss how these people withstood the
pressure and what they accomplished.

* Give reasons for not taking drugs. Discuss with a health educator or
drug counsel or the false arguments for using drugs. Develop counter
arguments in response to typical messages or pressures on behalf of drug use.

* Given a scenario depicting pressure to use drugs, act out ways of
resisting (simply refusing, giving a reason, leaving the scene, etc.).
Students should then practice these techniques repeatedly. Demonstrate ways
of resisting pressures, using older students specially trained as peer
teachers.

* Present scenarios involving drug-related problems (e.g., learning
that another student is selling drugs, learning that a sibling is using
drugs, or being offered a drive home by a friend under the influence of
drugs). Students practice what they would do and discuss to whom they would
turn for help. Teachers should discuss and evaluate the appropriateness of
student responses.

* Discuss how it feels to resist pressures to take drugs. Hold a poster
contest to depict the benefits derived both from not using and from saying no
(e.g., being in control, increased respect from others, self-confidence).

OBJECTIVE #4: To promote activities that reinforce the positive,
drug-free elements of student life.

School activities that provide opportunities for students to have fun
without alcohol and other drugs, and to contribute to the school community,
build momentum for peer pressure not to use drugs. These school activities
also nurture positive examples by giving older students opportunities for
leadership related to drug prevention.

Sample activities:

* Make participation in school activities dependent on an agreement not
to use alcohol and other drugs.

* Ensure that alcohol and other drugs will not be available at
school-sponsored activities or parties. Plan these events carefully to be
certain that students have attractive alternatives to drug use.

* Give students opportunities for leadership. They can be trained to
serve as peer leaders in drug prevention programs, write plays, or design
posters for younger students. Activities such as these provide youthful role
models who demonstrate the importance of not using drugs. Youth training
programs are available that prepare students to assist in drug education and
provide information on how to form drug-free youth groups.

* Form action teams for school improvement with membership limited to
students who are drug free. These action teams campaign against drug use,
design special drug-free events, conduct and follow up on surveys of school
needs, help teachers with paperwork, tutor other students, or improve the
appearance of the school. Through these activities, students develop a stake
in their school, have the opportunity to serve others, and have positive
reasons to reject drug use.

* Survey community resources that offer help for alcohol or other drug
problems or ways to cope with drug use by a family member.

* Create a program in the school for support of students returning from
treatment.

HOW THE LAW CAN HELP

Federal law accords school officials broad authority to regulate
student conduct and supports reasonable and fair disciplinary action. In
1984, the Supreme Court reaffirmed that the constitutional rights of students
in school are not "automatically coextensive with the rights of adults
in other settings."1 Rather, recognising that "in recent years . ..
drug use and violent crime in the schools have become major social
problems," the Court has emphasised the importance of effective
enforcement of school rules.2 On the whole, a school "is allowed to
determine the methods of student discipline and need not exercise its
discretion with undue timidity."3 An effective campaign against drug use
requires a basic understanding of legal techniques for searching and seizing
drugs and drug-related material, for suspending and expelling students
involved with drugs, and for assisting law enforcement officials in the
prosecution of drug offenders. Such knowledge will help schools identify and
penalise students who use or sell drugs at school and enable school officials
to uncover the evidence needed to support prosecutions under Federal and
State criminal laws that contain strong penalties for drug use and sale. In
many cases, school officials can be instrumental in successful prosecutions.

In addition to the general Federal statutes that make it a crime to
possess or distribute a controlled substance, there are special Federal laws
designed to protect children and schools from drugs:

* An important part of the Controlled Substances Act makes it a Federal
crime to sell drugs in or near a public or private elementary, secondary,
vocational, or post secondary school. Under this "schoolhouse" law,
sales within 1,000 feet of a school are punishable by up to double the
sentence that would apply if the sale occurred elsewhere. Even more serious
punishments are available for repeat offenders.4

* Distribution or sale to minors of controlled substances is also a
Federal crime. When anyone age 18 or over sells drugs to anyone under 21, the
seller runs the risk that he or she will receive up to double the sentence
that would apply to a sale to an adult. Here too, more serious penalties can
be imposed on repeat offenders.5

By working with Federal and State prosecutors in their area, schools
can help to ensure that these laws and others are used to make children and
schools off-limits to drugs.

The following pages describe in general terms the Federal laws
applicable to the development of an effective school drug policy. This
section is not a compendium of all laws that may apply to a school district,
and it is not intended to provide legal advice on all issues that may arise.
School officials must recognise that many legal issues in the school context
are also governed, in whole or in part, by State and local laws, which, given
their diversity, cannot be covered here. Advice should be sought from legal
counsel in order to understand the applicable laws and to ensure that the
school's policies and actions make full use of the available methods of
enforcement.

Most private schools, particularly those that receive little or no
financial assistance from public sources and are not associated with a public
entity, enjoy a greater degree of legal flexibility with respect to combating
the sale and use of illegal drugs. Depending on the terms of their contracts
with enrolled students, such schools may be largely free of the restrictions
that normally apply to drug searches or the suspension or expulsion of
student drug users. Private school officials should consul legal counsel to
determine what enforcement measures may be available to them.

School procedures should reflect the available legal means for
combating drug use. These procedures should be known to and understood by
school administrators and teachers as well as by students, parents, and law enforcement
officials. Everyone should be aware that school authorities have broad power
within the law to take full, appropriate, and effective action against drug
offenders. Additional sources of information on legal issues in school drug
policy are listed at the end of this handbook.

SEARCHING FOR DRUGS WITHIN THE SCHOOL

In some circumstances, the most important tool for controlling drug use
is an effective program of drug searches. School administrators should not
condone the presence of drugs anywhere on school property. The presence of
any drugs or drug-related materials in school can mean only one thing--that
drugs are being used or distributed in school. Schools committed to fighting
drugs should do everything they can to determine whether school grounds are
being used to facilitate the possession, use, or distribution of drugs, and
to prevent such crimes.

To institute an effective drug search policy in schools with a
substantial problem, school officials can take several steps. First, they can
identify the specific areas in the school where drugs are likely to be found
or used. Student lockers, bathrooms, and "smoking areas" are
obvious candidates. Second, school administrators can clearly announce in
writing at the beginning of the school year that these areas will be subject
to unannounced searches and that students should consider such areas
"public" rather than "private." The more clearly a school
specifies, that these portions of the school's property are public, the less likely
it is that a court will conclude that students retain any reasonable
expectation of privacy in these places and the less justification will be
needed to search such locations.

School officials should therefore formulate and disseminate to all
students and staff a written policy that will permit an effective program of
drug searches. Courts have usually upheld locker searches where schools have
established written policies under which the school retains joint control
over student lockers, maintains duplicate or master keys for all lockers, and
reserves the right to inspect lockers at any time.6 Although these practices
have not become established law in every part of the country, it will be
easier to justify locker searches in schools that have such policies.
Moreover, the mere existence of such policies can have a salutary effect. If
students know that their lockers may be searched, drug users will find it
much more difficult to obtain drugs in school.

The effectiveness of such searches may be improved with the use of specially
trained dogs. Courts have generally held that the use of dogs to detect drugs
on or in objects such as lockers, ventilators, or desk, as opposed to persons
is not a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.7
Accordingly, school administrators are generally justified in using dogs in
this way.

It is important to remember that any illicit drugs and drug-related
items discovered at school are evidence that may be used in a criminal trial.
School officials should be careful, first, to protect the evidentiary
integrity of such seizures by making sure that the items are obtained in
permissible searches, because unlawfully acquired evidence will not be
admissible in criminal proceedings. Second, school officials should work
closely with local law enforcement officials to preserve, in writing, the
nature and circumstances of any seizure of drug contraband. In a criminal
prosecution, the State must prove that the items produced as evidence in
court are the same items that were seized from the suspect. Thus, the State
must establish a "chain of custody" over the seized items which
accounts for the possession of the evidence from the moment of its seizure to
the moment it is introduced in court. School policy regarding the disposition
of drug-related items should include procedures for the custody and
safekeeping of drugs and drug-related materials prior to their removal by the
police and procedures for recording the circumstances regarding the seizure.

Searching Students

In some circumstances, teachers or other school personnel will wish to
search a student whom they believe to be in possession of drugs. The Supreme
Court has stated that searches may be carried out according to "the
dictates of reason and common sense."8 The Court has recognised that the
need of school authorities to maintain order justifies searches that might
otherwise be unreasonable if undertaken by police officers or in the larger
community. Thus the Court has held that school officials, unlike the police,
do not need "probable cause" to conduct a search. Nor do they need
a search warrant.9

Under the Supreme Court's ruling:

* School officials may institute a search if there are "reasonable
grounds" to believe that the search will reveal evidence that the
student has violated or is violating either the law or the rules of the
school.

* The extent of the permissible search will depend on whether the
measures used are reasonably related to the purpose of the search and are not
excessively intrusive in light of the age and sex of the student.

* School officials are not required to obtain search warrants when they
carry out searches independent of the police and other law enforcement
officials. A more stringent legal standard may apply if law enforcement
officials are involved in the search.

Interpretation of "Reasonable Grounds"

Lower courts are beginning to interpret and apply the "reasonable
grounds" standard in the school setting. From these cases it appears
that courts will require more than general suspicion, curiosity, rumour, or a
hunch to justify searching students or their possessions. Factors that will
help sustain a search include the observation of specific and describable
behaviour or activities leading one reasonably to believe that a given
student is engaging in or has engaged in prohibited conduct. The more
specific the evidence in support of searching a particular student, the more
likely the search will be upheld. For example, courts using a
"reasonable grounds" (or similar) standard have upheld the right of
school officials to search the following:

* A student's purse, after a teacher saw her smoking in a rest room and
the student denied having smoked or being a smoker.10

* A student's purse, after several other students said that she had
been distributing firecrackers.11

* A student's pockets, based on a phone tip about drugs from an
anonymous source believed to have previously provided accurate information.12

Scope of Permissible Search

School officials are authorised to conduct searches within reasonable
limits. The Supreme Court has described two aspects of these limits. First,
when officials conduct a search, they must use only measures that are
reasonably related to the purpose of the search; second, the search may not
be excessively intrusive in light of the age or sex of the student.

For example, if a teacher believes he or she has seen one student
passing a marijuana cigarette to another student, the teacher might
reasonably search the students and any nearby belongings in which the
students might have tried to hide the drug. If it turns out that what the
teacher saw was a stick of gum, the teacher would have no justification for
any further search for drugs.

The more intrusive the search, the greater the justification that will
be required by the courts. A search of a student's jacket or book bag can
often be justified as reasonable. At the other end of the spectrum, strip
searches are considered a highly intrusive invasion of individual privacy and
are viewed with disfavour by the courts (although even these searches have
been upheld in certain extraordinary circumstances).

School officials do not necessarily have to stop a search if they find
what they are looking for. If the search of a student reveals items that
create reasonable grounds for suspecting that the student may also possess
other evidence of crime or misconduct, the school officials may continue the
search. For example, if a teacher justifiably searches a student's purse for
cigarettes and finds rolling papers like those used for marijuana cigarettes,
it will then be reasonable for the teacher to search the rest of the purse
for other evidence of drugs.

Consent

If a student consents to a search, the search is permissible,
regardless of whether there would otherwise be reasonable grounds for the
search. To render such a search valid, however, the student must give consent
knowingly and voluntarily.

Establishing whether the student's consent was voluntary can be
difficult, and the burden is on the school officials to prove voluntary
consent. If a student agrees to be searched out of fear or as a result of
other coercion, that consent will probably be found invalid. Similarly, if
school officials indicate that a student must agree to a search or if the
student is very young or otherwise unaware that he or she has the right to
object, the student's consent will also be held invalid. School officials may
find it helpful to explain to students that they do not have to consent to a
search. In some cases, standard consent forms may be useful.

If a student is asked to consent to a search and refuses, that refusal
does not mean that the search may not be conducted. Rather, in the absence of
consent, school officials retain the authority to conduct a search when there
are reasonable grounds to justify it, as described previously.

Special Types of Student Searches

Schools with severe drug problems may occasionally wish to resort to
more intrusive searches, such as the use of trained dogs or urinalysis, to
screen students for drug use. The Supreme Court has yet to address these
issues. The following paragraphs explain the existing rulings on these
subjects by other courts:

* Specially trained dogs. The few courts that have considered this
issue disagree as to whether the use of a specially trained dog to detect
drugs on students constitutes a search within the meaning of the Fourth
Amendment. Some courts have held that a dog's sniffing of a student is a
search, and that, in the school setting, individualised grounds for
reasonable suspicion are required in order for such a
"sniff-search" to be held constitutional.13 Under this standard, a
blanket search of a school's entire student population by specially trained
dogs would be prohibited.

At least one other court has held that the use of trained dogs does not
constitute a search, and has permitted the use of such dogs without
individualised grounds for suspicion.14 Another factor that courts may
consider is the way that the dogs detect the presence of drugs. In some
instances, the dogs are merely led down hallways or classroom aisles. In
contrast, having the dogs actually touch parts of the students' bodies is
more intrusive and would probably require specific justification.

Courts have generally held that the use of specially trained dogs to
detect drugs on objects, as opposed to persons, is not a search within the
meaning of the Fourth Amendment. Therefore, school officials may often be
able to use dogs to inspect student lockers and school property.15

* Drug testing. The use of urinalysis or other tests to screen students
for drugs is a relatively new phenomenon and the law in this area is still
evolving. Few courts have considered the use of urinalysis to screen public
school students for drugs, and those courts that have done so have reached
mixed results.16 The permissibility of drug testing of students has not yet
been determined under all circumstances, although drug testing of adults has
been upheld in some settings.

SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION

A school policy may lawfully provide for penalties of varying severity,
including suspension and expulsion, to respond to drug-related offences. The
Supreme Court has held that because schools "need to be able to impose
disciplinary sanctions for a wide range of unanticipated conduct disruptive
of the educational process," a school's disciplinary rules need not be
so detailed as a criminal code.17 Nonetheless, it is helpful for school
policies to be explicit about the types of offences that will be punished and
about the penalties that may be imposed for each of these (e.g., use,
possession, or sale of drugs). State and local law will usually determine the
range of sanctions that is permissible. In general, courts will require only
that the penalty imposed for drug-related misconduct be rationally related to
the severity of the offence.

School officials should not forget that they have jurisdiction to
impose punishment for some drug-related offences that occur off-campus.
Depending on State and local laws, schools are often able to punish conduct
at off-campus, school-sponsored events as well as off-campus conduct that has
a direct and immediate effect on school activities.

Procedural Guidelines

Students facing suspension or expulsion from school are entitled under
the U.S. Constitution and most State constitutions to common sense due
process protections of notice and an opportunity to be heard. Because the
Supreme Court has recognised that a school's ability to maintain order would
be impeded if formal procedures were required every time school authorities
sought to discipline a student, the Court has held that the nature and
formality of the "hearing" will depend on the severity of the
sanction being imposed.

A formal hearing is not required when a school seeks to suspend a
student for 10 days or less.18 The Supreme Court has held that due process in
that situation requires only that:

* The school must inform the student, either orally or in writing, of
the charges against him or her and of the evidence to support those charges.

* The school must give the student an opportunity to deny the charges
and present his or her side of the story.

* As a general rule, this notice and rudimentary hearing should precede
a suspension. However, a student whose presence poses a continuing danger to
persons or property or an ongoing threat of disrupting the academic process
may be immediately removed from school. In such a situation, the notice and
rudimentary hearing should follow as soon as possible.

The Supreme Court has also stated that more formal procedures may be
required for suspensions longer than 10 days and for expulsions. Although the
Court has not established specific procedures to be followed in those
situations, other Federal courts have set the following guidelines for
expulsions.19 These guidelines would apply to suspensions longer than 10 days
as well:

* The student must be notified in writing of the specific charges
against him or her which, if proven, would justify expulsion.

* The student should be given the names of the witnesses against him or
her and an oral or written report on the facts to which each witness will
testify.

* The student should be given the opportunity to present a defence
against the charges and to produce witnesses or testimony on his or her
behalf.

Many States have laws governing the procedures required for suspensions
and expulsions. Because applicable statutes and judicial rulings vary across
the country, local school districts may enjoy a greater or lesser degree of
flexibility in establishing procedures for suspensions and expulsions.

School officials must also be aware of the special procedures that
apply to suspension or expulsion of students with disabilities under Federal
law and regulations.20

Effect of Criminal Proceedings Against a Student

A school may usually pursue disciplinary action against a student
regardless of the status of any outside criminal prosecution. That is,
Federal law does not require the school to await the outcome of the criminal
prosecution before initiating proceedings to suspend or expel a student or to
impose whatever other penalty is appropriate for the violation of the
school's rules. In addition, a school is generally free under Federal law to
discipline a student when there is evidence that the student has violated a
school rule, even if a juvenile court has acquitted (or convicted) the
student or if local authorities have declined to prosecute criminal charges
stemming from the same incident. Schools may wish to discuss this subject
with counsel.

Effect of Expulsion

State and local law will determine the effect of expelling a student
from school. Some State laws require the provision of alternative schooling
for students below a certain age. In other areas, expulsion may mean the
removal from public schools for the balance of the school year or even the
permanent denial of access to the public school system.

CONFIDENTIALITY OF EDUCATION RECORDS

To rid their schools of drugs, school officials will periodically need
to report drug-related crimes to police and to help local law enforcement
authorities detect and prosecute drug offenders. In doing so, schools will
need to take steps to ensure compliance with Federal and State laws governing
confidentiality of student records.

The Federal law that addresses this issue is the Family Educational
Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA),21 which applies to any school that receives
Federal funding and which limits the disclosure of certain information about
students that is contained in education records.22 Under FERPA, disclosure of
information in education records to individuals or entities other than
parents, students, and school officials is permissible only in specified
situations.23 In many cases, unless the parents or an eligible student24
provides written consent, FERPA will limit a school's ability to turn over
education records or to disclose information from them to the police. Such
disclosure is permitted, however, if (1) it is required by a court order or
subpoena, or (2) it is warranted by a health and safety emergency. In the
first of these two cases, reasonable efforts must be made to notify the
student's parents before the disclosure is made. FERPA also permits
disclosure if a State law enacted before November 19, 1974, specifically
requires disclosure to State and local officials.

Schools should be aware, however, that because FERPA governs only the
information in education records, it does not limit disclosure of other
information. Thus, school employees are free to disclose any information of
which they become aware through personal observation. For example, a teacher
who witnesses a drug transaction may, when the police arrive, report what he
or she witnessed. Similarly, evidence seized from a student during a search
is not an education record and may be turned over to the police without
constraint.

State laws and school policies may impose additional, and sometimes
more restrictive, requirements regarding the disclosure of information about
students. Because this area of the law is complicated, it is especially
important that an attorney be involved in formulating school policy under
FERPA and applicable State laws.

OTHER LEGAL ISSUES

Lawsuits Against Schools or School Of Officials

Disagreements between parents or students and school officials about
disciplinary measures usually can be resolved informally. Occasionally,
however, a school's decisions and activities relating to disciplinary matters
are the subject of lawsuits by parents or students against administrators,
teachers, and school systems. For these reasons, it is advisable that school
districts obtain adequate insurance coverage for themselves and for all
school personnel for liability arising from disciplinary actions.

Suits may be brought in Federal or State court; typically, they are
based on a claim that a student's constitutional or statutory rights have
been violated. Frequently, these suits will seek to revoke the school
district's imposition of some disciplinary measure, for example, by ordering
the reinstatement of a student who has been expelled or suspended. Suits may
also attempt to recover money damages from the school district or the
employee involved, or both; however, court awards of money damages are
extremely rare. Moreover, although there can be no guarantee of a given
result in any particular case, courts in recent years have tended to
discourage such litigation,

In general, disciplinary measures imposed reasonably and in accordance
with established legal requirements will be upheld by the courts. As a rule,
Federal judges will not substitute their interpretations of school rules or
regulations for those of local school authorities or otherwise second-guess
reasonable decisions by school officials.25 In addition, school officials are
entitled to a qualified good-faith immunity from personal liability for
damages for having violated a student's Federal constitutional or civil
rights.26 When this immunity applies, it shields school officials from any
personal liability for money damages. Thus, as a general matter, personal
liability is very rare, because officials should not be held personally
liable unless their actions are clearly unlawful, unreasonable, or arbitrary.

When a court does award damages, the award may be "compensatory"
or "punitive." Compensatory damages are awarded to compensate the
student for injuries actually suffered as a result of the violation of his or
her rights and cannot be based upon the abstract "value" or
"importance" of the constitutional rights in question.27 The burden
is on the student to prove that he or she suffered actual injury as a result
of the deprivation. Thus, a student who is suspended, but not under the
required procedures, will not be entitled to compensation if the student would
have been suspended had a proper hearing been held. If the student cannot
prove that the failure to hold a hearing itself caused him or her some
compensable harm, then the student is entitled to no more than nominal
damages, such as $1.00.28 "Punitive damages" are awarded to punish
the perpetrator of the injury. Normally, punitive damages are awarded only
when the conduct in question is malicious, unusually reckless, or otherwise
reprehensible.

Parents and students can also claim that actions by a school or school
officials have violated State law. For example, it can be asserted that a
teacher "assaulted" a student in violation of a State criminal law.
The procedures and standards in actions involving such violations are
determined by each State. Some States provide a qualified immunity from tort
liability under standards similar to the "good faith" immunity in
Federal civil rights actions. Other States provide absolute immunity under
their law for actions taken in the course of a school official's duties.

Non discrimination in Enforcement of Discipline

Federal law applicable to programs or activities receiving Federal
financial assistance prohibits school officials who are administering
discipline from discriminating against students on the basis of race, color,
national origin, or sex. Schools should therefore administer their discipline
policies evenhandedly, without regard to such considerations. Thus, as a
general matter, students with similar disciplinary records who violate the
same rule in the same way should be treated similarly. For example, if male
and female students with no prior record of misbehaviour are caught together
smoking marijuana, it would not, in the absence of other relevant factors, be
advisable for the school to suspend the male student for 10 days while
imposing only an afternoon detention on the female student. Such divergent
penalties for the same offence may be appropriate, however, if the student
who received the harsher punishment had a history of misconduct or committed
other infractions after this first confrontation with school authorities.

School officials should also be aware of and adhere to the special
rules and procedures for the disciplining of students with disabilities under
the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1400-20 and
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794. (For legal
citations, see Reference Section p. 84.)

RESOURCES

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

TOBACCO

Effects

The smoking of tobacco products is the chief avoidable cause of death
in our society. Smokers are more likely than non smokers to contract heart
disease--some 170,000 die each year from smoking-related coronary heart
disease. Lung, larynx, esophageal, bladder, pancreatic, and kidney cancers
also strike smokers at increased rates. Some 30 percent of cancer deaths
(130,000 per year) are linked to smoking. Chronic obstructive lung diseases
such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis are 10 times more likely to occur
among smokers than among non smokers.

Smoking during pregnancy also poses serious risks. Spontaneous
abortion, pre term birth, low birth weights, and foetal and infant deaths are
all more likely to occur when the pregnant woman/mother is a smoker.

Cigarette smoke contains some 4,000 chemicals, several of which are
known carcinogens. Other toxins and irritants found in smoke can produce eye,
nose, and throat irritations. Carbon monoxide, another component of cigarette
smoke, combines with haemoglobin in the blood stream to form
carboxyhemoglobin, a substance that interferes with the body's ability to
obtain and use oxygen.

Perhaps the most dangerous substance in tobacco smoke is nicotine.
Although it is implicated in the onset of heart attacks and cancer, its most
dangerous role is reinforcing and strengthening the desire to smoke. Because
nicotine is highly addictive, addicts find it very difficult to stop smoking.
Of 1,000 typical smokers, fewer than 20 percent succeed in stopping on the
first try.

Although the harmful effects of smoking cannot be questioned, people
who quit can make significant strides in repairing damage done by smoking.
For pack-a-day smokers, the increased risk of heart attack dissipates after
10 years. The likelihood of contracting lung cancer as a result of smoking
can also be greatly reduced by quitting.

ALCOHOL

Effects

Alcohol consumption causes a number of marked changes in behaviour.
Even low doses significantly impair the judgement and coordination required
to drive a car safely, increasing the likelihood that the driver will be
involved in an accident. Low to moderate doses of alcohol also increase the
incidence of a variety of aggressive acts, including spouse and child abuse.
Moderate to high doses of alcohol cause marked impairments in higher mental
functions, severely altering a person's ability to learn and remember
information. Very high doses cause respiratory depression and death. If
combined with other depressants of the central nervous system, much lower
doses of alcohol will produce the effects just described.

Repeated use of alcohol can lead to dependence. Sudden cessation of
alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms, including severe
anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. Alcohol withdrawal can be
life-threatening. Long-term consumption of large quantities of alcohol,
particularly when combined with poor nutrition, can also lead to permanent
damage to vital organs such as the brain and the liver.

Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with
foetal alcohol syndrome. These infants have irreversible physical
abnormalities and mental retardation. In addition, research indicates that
children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk than other youngsters of
becoming alcoholics.

CANNABIS

Effects

All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects.
Several regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial
increase in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, a dry mouth and throat, and
increased appetite.

Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short-term memory and
comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks
requiring concentration and coordination, such as driving a car. Research
also shows that students do not retain knowledge when they are "high."
Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new
information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.

Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it
in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and
pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing agents than
tobacco smoke.

Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependence and
require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can become the
centre of their lives.

INHALANTS

Effects

The immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing,
coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite.
Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and respiratory rates and
impair judgement. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches, and
involuntary passing of urine and faeces. Long-term use may result in
hepatitis or brain damage.

Deeply inhaling the vapours, or using large amounts over a short time,
may result in disorientation, violent behaviour, unconsciousness, or death.
High concentrations of inhalants can cause suffocation by displacing the
oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous system to the point
that breathing stops.

Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance,
and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapours over time can
permanently damage the nervous system.

COCAINE

Effects

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects
include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory
rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose,
while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting
cocaine with contaminated equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other
diseases. Preparation of free base, which involves the use of volatile
solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion. Cocaine can
produce psychological and physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot
function without the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

Crack or free base rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are
felt within 10 seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils,
increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite,
tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizures.

The use of cocaine can cause death by cardiac arrest or respiratory
failure.

OTHER STIMULANTS

Effects

Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated
blood pressure, dilated pupils, and decreased appetite. In addition, users
may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness,
and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors,
loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine injection
creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in stroke, very
high fever, or heart failure.

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless,
anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use large
amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can develop an amphetamine
psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. These
symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.

DEPRESSANTS

Effects

The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of
alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat
larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered
perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and
death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of
the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological
dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug,
leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users
suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms
ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to convulsions and death.

Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be
physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after
they are born. Birth defects and behavioural problems also may result.

HALLUCINOGENS

Effects

Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the
section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in
check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes may
result in self-inflicted injuries.

The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a sense of
distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed down. Muscular
coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.

Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and speech
difficulties. Some of these effects may last 6 months to a year following
prolonged daily use. Mood disorders--depression, anxiety, and violent
behavior--also occur. In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit
paranoid and violent behaviour and experience hallucinations. Large doses may
produce convulsions and coma, as well as heart and lung failure.

Lysergic acid {LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause illusions and
hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated
body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite,
sleeplessness, and tremors.

Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common to have a bad
psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The user may
experience panic, confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed
effects, or flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.

NARCOTICS

Effects

Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is
followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience
constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow
and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possible death.
Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use of
contaminated syringes may result in disease such as AIDS, endocarditis, and
hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or
addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.

DESIGNER DRUGS

Effects

Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To
circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the
molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as
designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger than the
drugs they are designed to imitate.

Many of the so-called designer drugs are related to amphetamines and
have mild stimulant properties but are mostly euphoriants. They can produce
severe neurochemical damage to the brain.

The narcotic analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in
Parkinson's disease: uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech,
paralysis, and irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and
methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and
faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia.
As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The analogs of phencyclidine
cause illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.

ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to
the male sex hormone testosterone. Developed in the 1930s, steroids are
seldom prescribed by physicians today. Current legitimate medical uses are
limited to certain kinds of anaemia, severe burns, and some types of breast
cancer.

Taken in combination with a program of muscle-building exercise and
diet, steroids may contribute to increases in body weight and muscular strength.
Because of these properties, athletes in a variety of sports have used
steroids since the 1950s, hoping to enhance performance. Today, they are
being joined by increasing numbers of young people seeking to accelerate
their physical development.

Steroid users subject themselves to more than 70 side effects ranging
in severity from liver cancer to acne and including psychological as well as
physical reactions. The liver and the cardiovascular and reproductive systems
are most seriously affected by steroid use. In males, use can cause withered
testicles, sterility, and impotence. In females, irreversible masculine
traits can develop along with breast reduction and sterility. Psychological
effects in both sexes include very aggressive behaviour known as "roid
rage" and depression. While some side effects appear quickly, others,
such as heart attacks and strokes, may not show up for years.

Signs of steroid use include quick weight and muscle gains (if steroids
are being used in conjunction with a weight training program); behavioural
changes, particularly increased aggressiveness and combativeness; jaundice;
purple or red spots on the body; swelling of feet or lower legs; trembling;
unexplained darkening of the skin; persistent unpleasant breath odor, and severe
acne.

Steroids are produced in tablet or capsule form for oral ingestion, or
as a liquid for intramuscular injection.

Sources of Information

The Department of Education does not endorse private or commercial
products or services, or products or services not affiliated with the Federal
Government. The sources of information listed on this and the following pages
are intended only as a partial listing of the resources that are available to
readers of this booklet. Readers are encouraged to research and inform
themselves of the products or services, relating to drug and alcohol abuse,
that are available to them. Readers are encouraged to visit their public
libraries to find out more about the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse, or to
call local, State, or national hot lines for further information, advice, or
assistance.

TOLL-FREE INFORMATION

1-800-COCAINE--COCAINE HELP LINE

A round-the-clock information and referral service. Recovering cocaine
addict counsellors answer the phones, offer guidance, and refer drug users
and parents to local public and private treatment centers and family learning
centers.

1-800-NCA-CALL--NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ALCOHOLISM INFORMATION LINE

The National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., is the national non profit
organisation combating alcoholism, other drug addictions, and related
problems. Provides information about NCA's State and local affiliates'
activities in their areas. Also provides referral services to families and
individuals seeking help with an alcohol or other drug problem.

1-800-662-HELP--NIDA HOTLINE

NIDA Hot line, operated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is a
confidential information and referral line that directs callers to cocaine
abuse treatment centers in the local community. Free materials on drug use
also are distributed in response to inquiries.

GENERAL READINGS

Publications listed below are free unless otherwise noted.

Adolescent Drug Abuse: Analyses of Treatment Research, by Elizabeth R.
Rahdert and John Grabowski, 1988. This 139-page book assesses the adolescent
drug user and offers theories, techniques, and findings about treatment and
prevention. It also discusses family-based approaches. National Clearinghouse
for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Adolescent Peer Pressure Theory, Correlates, and Program Implications
for Drug Abuse Prevention, 1988, U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. This 115-page book focuses on constructive ways of channelling peer
pressure. This volume was developed to help parents and professionals
understand the pressures associated with adolescence, the factors associated
with drug use, and other forms of problem behaviour. Different peer program
approaches, ways in which peer programs can be implemented, and research suggestions
are included. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O.
Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Building Drug-Free Schools, by Richard A. Hawley, Robert C. Peterson,
and Margaret C. Mason, 1986. This four-part drug prevention kit for grades
K-12 provides school staff, parents, and community groups with suggestions
for developing a workable school drug policy, K-12 curriculum, and community
support. The kit consists of three written guides ($50) and a film ($275).
American Council for Drug Education, 204 Monroe Street, Suite 110, Rockville,
MD 20852. Telephone (301) 294-0600.

The Challenge newsletter highlights successful school-based programs,
provides suggestions on effective prevention techniques and the latest
research on drugs and their effects. Published quarterly by the U.S.
Department of Education and available from the National Clearinghouse for
Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Court watch Manual. A 111-page manual explaining the court system, the
criminal justice process, Court watch activities, and what can be done before
and after a criminal is sentenced. Washington Legal Foundation, 1705 N
Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036. Enclose $5 for postage and handling.
Telephone (202) 857-0240.

Drug Prevention Curricula: A Guide to Selection and Implementation, by
the U.S. Department of Education, 1988. Written with the help of a
distinguished advisory panel, this 76-page handbook represents the best
current thinking about drug prevention education. It shows what to look for
when adopting or adapting ready-made curricula, and suggests important
lessons that ought to be part of any prevention education sequence. National
Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD
20852.

Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs, by Robert DuPont, Jr., 1985. This
330-page book describes the drug problem, the drug-dependence syndrome, the
gateway drugs, and some ways that families can prevent and treat drug
problems. American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1400 K Street, NW, Suite 1101,
Washington, DC 20005, paperback, $9.95. Telephone 1-800-368-5777 and in the
DC area (202) 682-6269.

Gone Way Down: Teenage Drug-Use Is a Disease, by Miller Newton, 1981,
revised 1987. This 72-page book describes the stages of adolescent drug use.
American Studies Press, paperback, $3.95. Telephone (813) 961-7200.

Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals, by Joyce
Tobias, 1986, reprinted 1987. A 96-page handbook about adolescent drug and
alcohol use, the effects of drugs and the drug culture, stages of chemical
use, the formation of parent groups, and available resources. PANDAA Press,
4111 Watkins Trail, Annandale, VA 22003. Telephone (703) 750-9285, paperback,
$4.95 (volume discounts).

National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American High
School Students, 1975-1986, by Jerald G. Bachman, Lloyd D. Johnston, and
Patrick M. O'Malley, 1987. This 265-page book reports on trends in drug use
and attitudes of high school seniors, based on an annual survey conducted
since 1975. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box
2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Parents, Peers and Pot II: Parents in Action, by Marsha Manatt, 1983,
reprinted 1988. This 160-page book describes the formation of parent groups
in rural, suburban, and urban communities. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol
and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Peer Pressure Reversal, by Sharon Scott, 1985, reprinted 1988. A
183-page guidebook for parents, teachers, and concerned citizens to enable
them to teach peer pressure reversal skills to children. Human Resource
Development Press, 22 Amherst Road, Amherst, MA 01002. Telephone (413)
253-3488, paperback, $9.95.

Pot Safari, by Peggy Mann, 1982, reprinted 1987. A 134-page book for
parents and teenagers. Distinguished research scientists are interviewed on
the subject of marijuana. Woodmere Press, Cathedral Finance Station, P.O. Box
20190, New York, NY 10125. Telephone (212) 678-7839. Paperback, $6.95 plus
shipping (volume discounts).

Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use, by Michael J. Polich et
al., 1984. This 196-page book reviews the scientific literature on the nature
of drug use and the effectiveness of drug law enforcement, treatment, and
prevention programs. The Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138,
Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138, R-3076-CHF. Telephone (213) 393-0411, paperback
$15.00.

Team Up for Drug Prevention With America's Young Athletes. A free
booklet for coaches that includes information about alcohol and other drugs,
reasons why athletes use drugs, suggested activities for coaches, a
prevention program, a survey for athletes and coaches, and sample letters to
parents. Drug Enforcement Administration, Demand Reduction Section, 1405 I
Street, NW, Washington, DC 20537. Telephone (202) 786-4096.

The Fact Is...You Can Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems Among
Elementary School Children, 1988. This 17-page booklet includes audiovisuals,
program descriptions, and professional and organisational resources to assist
educators and parents of young children. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol
and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

VIDEOTAPES

The following drug prevention videos were developed by the U.S.
Department of Education. They are available for loan through the Department's
Regional Centres listed on pages 78 and 79 and the National Clearinghouse for
Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852; (301)
468-2600.

Elementary School

The Drug Avengers. Ten 5-minute animated adventures that urge caution
about ingesting unfamiliar substances; encourage students to trust their
instincts when they think something is wrong; and show that drugs make things
worse, not better.

Fast Forward Future. A magical device allows youngsters to peer into
the future and see on a TV screen what will happen if they use drugs and what
will happen if they remain drug free.

Straight Up. A fantasy adventure that features information on the
effects of drugs, developing refusal skills, building self-esteem, and
resisting peer pressure.

Junior High

Straight at Ya. Tips on peer pressure, saying no, and building
self-esteem.

Lookin' Good. A two-part series based on actual incidents that convey
the dangers of drug use and promote the use of peer support groups.

Straight Talk. Teens discuss why they won't use drugs and ways to avoid
drugs.

High School

Hard Facts About Alcohol, Marijuana, and Crack. Offers factual
information about the dangers of drug use in a series of dramatic vignettes.

Speak Up, Speak Out: Learning to Say No to Drugs. Gives students
specific techniques they can use to resist peer pressure and say no to drug
use.

Dare to Be Different. Uses the friendship of two athletes in their last
year of high school to illustrate the importance of goals and values in
resisting pressures to use drugs.

Downfall: Sports and Drugs. Shows how drugs affect athletic performance
and examines the consequences of drug use, including steroid use, on every
aspect of an athlete's life--career, family, friends, sense of
accomplishment, and self-esteem.

Private Victories. Illustrates the effects of drug and alcohol use on
students and the value of positive peer influences in resisting peer pressure
to use drugs.

SOURCES OF FREE CATALOGS OF PUBLICATIONS

Hazelden Educational Materials. A source for pamphlets and books on
drug use and alcoholism and curriculum materials for drug prevention.
Telephone 1-800-328-9000. In Minnesota, call (612) 257-4010 or 1-800-257-0070.

National Council on Alcoholism. A source for pamphlets, booklets, and
fact sheets on alcoholism and drug use. Telephone (212) 206-6770.

Johnson Institute. A source for audio cassettes, films, video
cassettes, pamphlets, and books on alcoholism and drug use. Offers books and
pamphlets on prevention and intervention for children, teens, parents, and
teachers. Telephone toll-free 1-800-231-5165. In Minnesota, 1-800-247-0484
and in Minneapolis/St. Paul area, 944-0511.

National Association for Children of Alcoholics. A source for books,
pamphlets, and handbooks for children of alcoholics. Conducts regional
workshops and provides a directory of local members and meetings. Telephone
(714) 499-3889.

SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY RESOURCES

ACTION Drug Prevention Program. ACTION, the Federal volunteer agency,
works at the local, State, and national levels to encourage and help fund the
growth of youth, parents, and senior citizen groups and networks committed to
helping youth remain drug free. 806 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite M-606,
Washington, DC 20525. Telephone (202) 634-9757.

American Council for Drug Education (ACDE). ACDE organises conferences;
develops media campaigns; reviews scientific findings; publishes books, a
quarterly newsletter, and education kits for physicians, schools, and
libraries; and produces films. 204 Monroe Street, Suite 110, Rockville, MD
20852. Telephone (301) 294-0600.

Committees of Correspondence. This organisation provides a newsletter
and bulletins on issues, ideas, and contacts. Publishes a resource list and
pamphlets. Membership is $15.00. 57 Conant Street, Room 113, Danvers, MA
09123. Telephone (508) 774-2641.

Drug-Free Schools and Communities--Regional Centres Program, U.S.
Department of Education. This program is designed to help local school
districts, State education agencies, and institutions of higher education to
develop alcohol and drug education and prevention programs. Five regional
centers provide training and technical assistance. For further information on
centre services, contact the centre in your region:

Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania
Rhode Island, Vermont.

Contact:

Northeast Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities 12
Overton Ave. Sayville, NY 11782-0403 (516) 589-7022

Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Puerto Rico,
South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Virgin Islands,
West Virginia

Contact:

Southeast Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities
Spencerian Office Plaza University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 (502)
588-0052 FAX: (502) 588-1782

Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
South Dakota, Wisconsin

Contact:

Midwest Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities 1900
Spring Road Oak Brook, IL 60521 (708) 571-4710 FAX: (708) 571-4718

Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas,
Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico,
Oklahoma, Texas, Utah

Contact:

Southwest Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities 555
Constitution Ave. Norman, OK 73037-0005 (405) 325-1454 (800) 234-7972
(outside Oklahoma)

Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada,
Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, American Samoa, Guam,
Northern Mariana Islands, and Republic of Palau

Contact:

Western Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities 101 S.W.
Main St., Suite 500 Portland, OR 97204 (503) 275-9480 (800) 547-6339 (outside
Oregon)

For general program information, contact the U.S. Department of
Education, Drug-Free Schools Staff, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC
20202-6151. Telephone (202) 732-4599.

Drug-Free Schools and Communities--State and Local Programs, U.S.
Department of Education. This program provides each State educational agency
and Governor's office with funds for alcohol and drug education and
prevention programs in local schools and communities. For information on
contact persons in your State, contact the U.S. Department of Education,
Drug-Free Schools Staff, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-6151.
Telephone (202) 732-4599.

Families in Action. This organisation maintains a drug information
centre with more than 200,000 documents. Publishes Drug Abuse Update, a
quarterly journal containing abstracts of articles published in medical and
academic journals and newspapers. $25 for four issues. 2296 Henderson Mill
Road, Suite 204, Atlanta, GA 30345. Telephone (404) 934-6364.

"Just Say No" Clubs. These nation wide clubs provide support
and positive peer reinforcement to youngsters through workshops, seminars,
newsletters, walk-a-thons, and a variety of other activities. Clubs are
organised by schools, communities, and parent groups. Just Say No Foundation,
1777 N. California Boulevard, Suite 200, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Telephone
1-800-258-2766 or (415) 939-6666.

Narcotics Education, Inc. This organisation publishes pamphlets, books,
teaching aids, posters, audiovisuals aids, and prevention magazines designed
for classroom use: WINNER for Preteens and LISTEN for teens. 6830 Laurel
Street, NW, Washington, DC 20012. Telephone 1-800-548-8700, or in the
Washington, DC area, call (202) 722-6740.

Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education, Inc. (PRIDE). This
national resource and information centre offers consultant services to parent
groups, school personnel, and youth groups, and provides a drug-use survey
service. It conducts an annual conference; publishes a newsletter, a youth
group handbook, and other publications; and sells and rents books, films, videos,
and slide programs. Membership is $20. The Hurt Building, 50 Hurt Plaza,
Suite 210, Atlanta, GA 30303. Telephone (404) 577-4500, 1-800-241-9746.

TARGET. Conducted by the National Federation of State High School
Associations, an organisation of interscholastic activities associations,
TARGET offers workshops, training seminars, and an information bank on
chemical use and prevention. It has a computerised referral service to
substance abuse literature and prevention programs. National Federation of
State High School Associations, 11724 Plaza Circle, P.O. Box 20626, Kansas
City, MO 64195. Telephone (816) 464-5400.

Tough love. This national self-help group for parents, children, and
communities emphasises cooperation, personal initiative, avoidance of blame,
and action. It publishes a newsletter, brochures, and books and holds
workshops. P.O. Box 1069, Doylestown, PA 18901. Telephone 1-800-333-1069 or
(215) 348-7090.

U.S. Clearinghouse. (A publication list is available on request, along
with placement on a mailing list for new publications. Single copies are
free.)

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) P.O.
Box 2345 Rockville, MD 20852 (301) 468-2600 1-800-SAY-NOTO

NCADI combines the clearinghouse activities previously administered by
the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse and the National
Institute on Drug Abuse. The Department of Education contributes to the
support of the clearinghouse, and provides anti-drug materials for free
distribution.

READINGS ON LEGAL ISSUES

Alexander, Kern, American Public School Law, 3d ed. St. Paul, MN: West
Publishing Company, 1992.

Rapp. J.A., Education Law, New York, NY: Matthew Bender and Company,
Inc., 1991. A comprehensive, frequently updated, four-volume, loose leaf
treatise on all issues of education law.

The Journal of Law and Education includes articles on education issues
and a section on recent developments in the law. It is published quarterly by
Jefferson Law Book Company, 2035 Redding Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45202-1416.

Reutter, E. Edmund, The Law of Public Education, 3d ed. Mineola, NY:
Foundation Press, 1985.

School Law Bulletin is a quarterly magazine published by the Institute
of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC
27599-3330.

School Law News is a newsletter that describes recent developments in
the field. Capitol Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 1453, Alexandria, VA
22313-2053, Telephone (800) 327-7203.

The Schools and the Courts contains briefs of selected court cases
involving elementary and secondary schools. It is published quarterly by
College Administration Publications, 830-D Fairview Rd., P.O. Box 15898,
Asheville, NC 28813-0898.

West's Education Law Reporter reprints the full text of Federal and
State education law cases. Also included are education articles and comments
selected from legal periodicals. West Publishing Company, 610 Opperman Drive,
P.O. Box 64526, St. Paul, MN 55164-0526.

OTHER SOURCES OF MATERIALS ON LEGAL ISSUES

Council of School Attorneys, National School Boards Association (NSBA),
provides a national forum on the practical legal problems faced by local
public school districts and the attorneys who serve them. NSBA conducts
programs and seminars and publishes monographs on a wide range of legal
issues affecting public school districts. 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA
22314, Telephone (703) 838-NSBA.

National Organisation on Legal Problems of Education (NOLPE) is a non
profit, non advocacy organisation that disseminate information about current
issues in school law. NOLPE publishes newsletters, serials, books, and
monographs on a variety of school law topics; hosts seminars; and serves as a
clearinghouse for information on education law. 3601 SW 29th Street, Suite
223, Topeka, KS 66614. Telephone (913) 273-3550.

REFERENCES

Children and Drugs

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to
Graduate from High School?" Journal of Drug Education, Vol. 15(4), 1985.

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.
Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School
Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social
Research, 1987 (and unpublished information).

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and
Professionals. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

Youth and Alcohol

Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems. NIAAA, Alcohol and Health
Monograph 1, 1982.

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman. National
Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American High School Students
and Young Adults. NIDA, Department of Health and Human Services,
(ADM-87-1535), U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987

Alcohol Topics: Fact Sheet, Alcohol and Youth. January 1987, Rockville,
MD. "Blood Alcohol Concentrations Among Young Drivers, 1983."
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33:699-701, 1984. National
Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.

Alcohol and Health VI. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism, Sixth Special Report to the U.S Congress on Alcohol and Health,
(ADM 87-1519) Rockville, MD.

Health, United States, 1980. National Center for Health Statistics,
(PHS 81-1232), December 1980.

"A Study of Children's Attitudes and Perceptions about Drugs and
Alcohol." Weekly Reader Publications. Middletown, CT. April 25, 1983.

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information: "Fact
Sheet: Selected Statistics on Alcohol and alcoholism," June 1987.
Rockville, MD.

DuPont, R.L. "Substance Abuse." Journal of the American
Medical Association, 254:16, October 25, 1985.

Kandel, D.B. "Epidemiological and Psychosocial Perspectives on
Adolescent Drug Use." Journal of the American Academy of Child
Psychology, 21(4):328-347, 1982.

Braucht, G.N. "Psychosocial Research on Teenage Drinking: Past and
Future," in Scarpitti, F.R. & S.K. Datesman, eds. Drugs and the
Youth Culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1980.

Jenson, R. "Adolescent Problem Drinking: Psychosocial Aspects
& Developmental Outcomes in Proceedings." Collaborating Center
Designation Meeting & Alcohol Research Seminar, L.H. Towle, ed. 1985.
(ADM 85-1730), Rockville, MD.

Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley. Monitoring
the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School Seniors.
Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1991
(and unpublished information).

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman. Drug
Use Among American High School Students, College Students, and Other Young
Adults: National Trends Through 1990. Rockville, MD: National Institute on
Drug Abuse, 1990 (and unpublished information).

Miller, Judith D., Ira H. Cisin, and Herbert I. Abelson. National
Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1982. Rockville, MD: National Institute
on Drug Abuse, 1983 (ADM 83-1263).

Delinquency in the United States, 1982. Pittsburgh, PA: National
Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 1985.

Drug Problems in Japan. National Police Agency of Japan, 1985.

"Youth and Alcohol: A National Survey." U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General, 1991.

O'Malley, Patrick M., Jerald G. Bachman, and Lloyd D. Johnston.
"Student Drug Use in America: Differences Among High Schools." Ann
Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, unpublished
preliminary draft.

Japan Statistics Yearbook, 1985. Tokyo: Statistics Bureau, Management
and Coordination Agency, 1985.

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine
Abuse: A View from the National Hot line, 800-COCAINE ;" in Advances in
Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 1987.

How Drug Use Develops

Bolton, Iris M. "Educated Suicide Prevention." School Safety.
Spring 1986.

DuPont, Robert L. Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs. Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Press, 1984.

Gold, Mark S., Linda Semlitz, Charles A. Dackis, and Irl Extein.
"The Adolescent Cocaine Epidemic." Seminars in Adolescent Medicine,
Vol. 1(4). New York, NY: Thieme, Inc., December 1985.

Holzman, David. "Crack Shatters the Cocaine Myth," and
"Hot Line Taking 1,200 Calls A Day." Insight. June 23, 1986.

Jaffe, Jerome H. "Testimony before Subcommittee on Children,
Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism," February 20, 1986. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1986.

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Mills, Carol J. and Harvey L. Noyes. "Patterns and Correlates of
Initial and Subsequent Drug Use Among Adolescents." Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(2), 1984.

Morganthau, Tom, Mark Miller, Janet Huck, and Jeanne DeQuinne.
"Kids and Cocaine." Newsweek, March 17, 1986.

Cocaine Addiction: It Costs Too Much. Rockville, MD: National Institute
on Drug Abuse, 1985.

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

Weekly Reader Publications. The Weekly Reader National Survey: Drugs
and Drinking. Middletown, CT: Field Publications, 1987.

Effects of Drug Use

Deadwyler, Sam A. "Correlating Behaviour with Neural Activity: An
Approach to Study the Action of Drugs in the Behaving Animal.
"Neuroscience Methods in Drug Abuse Research. Rockville, MD: National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

Drug Use and Learning

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to
Graduate from High School?" Journal of Drug Education, Vol. 15(4), 1985.

Johnston, Lloyd D. Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.
Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School
Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social
Research, 1987 (and unpublished information).

Niven, Robert G. "Marijuana in the School: Clinical Observation
and Needs." Marijuana and Youth. Rockville, MD: National Institute on
Drug Abuse, 1982.

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine
Abuse: A View from the National Hot line, '800-COCAINE'," in Advances in
Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 1987.

What Parents Can Do

American Association of School Administrators and the Quest National
Center. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches to Preventing Youthful
Drug and Alcohol Use. Arlington VA: American Association of School
Administrators, 1985.

Fraser, M. W., and J. D. Hawkins. Parent Training for Delinquency
Prevention: A Review. Seattle, WA: Center for Law and Justice, University of
Washington, 1982.

Manatt, Marsha. Parents, Peers, and Pot II. Rockville, MD: National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drugs and the Family. Rockville, MD:
National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981, (ADM 83-1151).

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Parents: What You Can De About Drug
Abuse--Get Involved. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983
(ADM 84-1267).

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: Panda Press, 1986.

What Schools Can Do

Adams, Tom, with Bernard R. McColgan, Steven E. Gardner, and Maureen E.
Sullivan. Drug Abuse Prevention and the Schools. Rockville, MD: National
Institute on Drug Abuse, June 1984 (unpublished paper).

Assisting Athletes with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. Rockland, ME:
State of Maine, March 1986.

Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc. "Evaluation of Drug
Literature." Amherst, MA: Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc.

Hawley, R. A A School Answers Back: Responding to Student Drug Use.
Rockville, MD: American Council for Drug Education, 1984.

Kennedy, Dorothy. "A Teacher Help Me Stop Drug Abuse." The
Executive Educator. October 1980, p. 23.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Prevention Plus:
Involving Schools, Parents, and the Community in Alcohol and Drug Education.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983 (ADM 83-1256).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Handbook for Prevention Evaluation.
Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981.

National School Boards Association. Resolutions of the NSBA.
Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Association, April 1986.

Pyramid Project. School Drug Policy. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Institute
for Research and Evaluation, July 1986.

The Rand Corporation. Teens in Action: Creating a Drug-Free Future for
America's Youth. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985 (ADM
85-1376).

Rubel, Robert J. A Comprehensive Approach to Drug Prevention. Austin,
TX: National Alliance for Safe Schools, 1984.

South Dakota High School Activities Association. Chemical Health-School
Athletics and Fine Arts Activities. Pierre, SD: South Dakota High School
Athletics Association, 1968.

Strong, Gerald. "It's Time to Get Tough on Alcohol and Drug Abuse
in Schools," The American School Board Journal. February 1983.

U.S. Department of Justice. For Coaches Only: How to Start a Drug
Prevention Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Drug
Enforcement Administration, 1984.

U.S. Department of Justice. Team Up for Prevention. Washington, DC:
U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 1984.

What Communities Can Do

Blizard, R.A. and R.W. Teague. "Alternatives to Drug Use: An
Alternative Approach to Drug Education." The International Journal of the
Addictions, 1981, pp. 371-375.

Final Evaluation Report, 1984-85 Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance
Educational). Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation and Training Institute, August
1985.

Manatt, Marsha. Parents, Peers, and Pot II. Rockville, MD: National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse:
Intervention Strategies. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse,
1983.

Teaching About Drug Prevention

Bausen, William B. and C. Kevin Molotte. Well and Good. Hollywood, CA:
Health Promotion Associates, 1984.

Ellickson, Phyllis L. and Gall Zellman. Adapting the Social Influence
Model to Drug Prevention: The Project Alert Curriculum. Paper presented at
annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC:
November 1985.

Project SMART. Los Angeles, CA: Health Behaviour Research Institute.
University of Southern California, 1982.

Adolescent Peer Pressure. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug
Abuse, 1981 (ADM 84-1152).

Teaching Tools for Primary Prevention. Rockville, MD: National
Institute on Drug Abuse, December 1982 (unpublished paper).

New Hampshire State Department of Education. K-12 Guidelines for School
Preventive Drug Education. Concord, NH: State of New Hampshire, 1979.

How the Law Can Help

1 Bethel School District v. Fraser, 418 U.S. 615,682 (1986).
2 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325, 339 (1985).
3 2 J. Rapp, Education Law, 5 9.06[2] at 9-132 (1991).
4 See 21 U.S.C. 5 860.
5 See 21 U.S.C. 5 859.
6 See e.g., Zamora v. Pomeroy, 639 F.2d 662 (10th Cir. 1981) (locker search
conducted after trained police dog indicated presence of marijuana inside).
7 See e.g., Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690 F.2d 470,
476-77 (5th Cir. 1982) (en banc) (citing cases and so holding), cert. denied,
463 U.S. 1207 (1983).
8 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. at 343.
9 Id. at 340.
10 Id. at 345-48.
11 Bahr v. Jenkins, 539 F. Supp. 483,488 (E.D. Ky. 1982).
12 Martens v. District No. 220, 620 F. Supp. 29 (N.D. Ill. 1985).
13 See Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690 F.2d at 477
(1982); Jones v. Latexo Independent School, 499 F. Supp. 223 (E.D. Tex.
1980).
14 See Doe v. Renfrow, 475 F. Supp. 1012 (N.D. Ind. 1979), aff'd in relevant
part, 631 F.2d 91 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 451 U.S. 1022 (1981).
15 Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690 F.2d at 477.
16 Compare Odenheim v. Carlstadt-East Rutherford Regional School District,
211 N.J. Super. 54, 10 A.2d 709 (1985) and Anable v. Ford, 653 F. Supp. 22
(W.D. Ark.), modified, 663 F. Supp. 149 (W.D. Ark. 1985) (urinalysis not
permitted to screen public school students for drugs) with Schaill v.
Tijpecanoe, 679 F. Supp. 833 (N.D. Ind. 1988) (upheld drug testing of
interscholastic athletes in the public school system), aft'd, 864 F.2d 1309
(7th Cir. 1988).
17 Bethel School District v. Fraser, 478 U.S. at 686.
18 Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565 (1975).
19 One of the leading cases is Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education, 294
F.2d 150 (5th Cir.), cert. denied. 368 U.S. 930 (1961).
20 See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 55 1400-20, and
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 5 794.
21 See generally 20 U.S.C. 5 1232g and 34 C.F.R. Part 99.
22 The term education records is defined as records that are directly related
to a student and maintained by or for the education agency or institution.
The term does not include certain records maintained by a separate law
enforcement unit of an education agency.
23 FERPA permits a school to disclose information from education records to
its own officials (including teachers) who have a legitimate educational
interest in the information. A school may determine in its FERPA policy that
one such interest is the need to decide on the appropriateness of discipline.

24 An eligible student is a student who is 18 or older or attending an
institution of post secondary education.
25 See Board of Education v. McCluskey, 458 U.S. 966, 970-71 (1982) (per
curiam); see also Tarter v. Raybuck, 742 F.2d 977, 983 (6th Cir. 1984), cert.
denied, 470 U.S. 1051 (1985).
26 See Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982); Wood v. Strickland, 420
U.S. 308 (1975). Under these cases, officials will be immune from personal
liability so long as their conduct does not violate clearly established
constitutional or Federal statutory rights of which a reasonable person
should have known.
27 Memphis Community School District v. Stachura, 477 U.S. 299 (1986).
28 Carey v. Piphus, 435 U.S. 247 (1978).

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

Drug Enforcement Administration. Drugs of Abuse. Washington, DC, 1985.

Mann, Peggy. Pot Safari: A Visit to the Top Marijuana Research in the
U.S. New York, NY: Woodmere Press, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Cocaine Use in America: Epidemiologic
and Clinical Perspectives. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985, (ADM
85-1414).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug Abuse and Drug Abuse Research.
1984, (ADM 85-1372).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hallucinogens and PCP. 1983, (ADM
83-1306).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Inhalants. 1983 (ADM 83-1307).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana. 1983 (ADM 83-1307).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Capsules, various issues.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opiates. 1984 (ADM 84-1308).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Phencyclidine: An Update. (ADM
86-1443).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Sedative-Hynotics. 1984 (ADM
84-1309).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Stimulants and Cocaine. 1984 (ADM
84-1304).

Newsweek. March 17, 1986, page 58.

Tobias, Joyce. Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and
Professionals. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, May 1986.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following employees of the U.S. Department of Education assisted in
the preparation of this volume and previous editions:

Beverley Blondell        Adriana de
Kanter        Henry Bretzfield
Amy Katz        Ron
Bucknam        Kim Light
Judith Cherrington        John
Mason        Mari Colvin
Ross McNutt        Maura
Daly        Val Plisko
Elizabeth Farquhar        Sandra
Richardson        Jaime Fernandez
Loretta Riggans        Margaret
Guenther        Deborah Rudy
Charlotte Gillespie        Daniel
Schecter        Alan Ginsburg
Amy L. Schwartz        Wilma Green       
Barbara Vespucci
Dick Hays        John
Walters        Gregory Henschel
Sherry Weissman        Daphne
Kaplan        Valerie Wood

Assistance was also provided by staff from the National Clearinghouse
for Alcohol and Drug Information, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and
by consultants Elizabeth S. McConnell and Joel M. Moskowitz.

 

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