Your Guide To Pesticides And Toxic Substances

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Your Guide To Pesticides And Toxic Substances



Your Options

Tips for
Handling Pesticides

Correct Dosage

Storage and Disposal

How to
Choose a Pest Control Company

How to
Reduce Your Exposure to Pesticides

Been Poisoned, Help"

Your Options

THEY'RE THERE. Whether you see them or not, you know they're there--in
your home, your vegetable garden, your lawn, your fruit and shade trees, your
flowers, and on your pets. They are pests--insects, weeds, fungi, rodents,
and others.

American households and their surrounding grounds are frequent hosts to
common structural pests (termites, cockroaches, fleas, rodents), as well as a
wide array of pests that are usually associated with agriculture. Because
pests are all around--sometimes creating a nuisance but sometimes causing
severe financial loss--consumers have turned increasingly to pesticides to
control them. Just as "pests" can be anything from cockroaches in
your kitchen to algae in your swimming pool, pesticides include insecticides,
herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, disinfectants, and plant growth
regulators--anything that kills or otherwise controls a pest of any kind.

The first and most important step in pest control is to identify the
pest. Some pests, or signs of them, are unmistakable. Others are not. For
example, some plant "diseases" are really indications of
insufficient soil nutrients.

Three information sources are particularly helpful in identifying pests
and appropriate pest control methods: reference books (such as insect field
guides or gardening books), the County Extension Service, and pesticide

The next step is to decide what level of treatment you want. Is anyone
in the family or neighbourhood particularly sensitive to chemical pesticides?
Does your lawn really need to be totally weed-free? Do you need every fruit,
vegetable, or flower you grow, or could you replace certain pest-prone
species or varieties with hardier substitutes? Will you accept some blemished
produce? In other words, do you need to eliminate all weeds and insects, or
can you tolerate some pests?

Remember that total pest elimination is virtually impossible, and
trying to eradicate pests from your premises will lead you to more extensive,
repeated chemical treatments than are required for pest control. Remember,
too, that to manage any pest effectively, you must use each method (or
combination of methods) correctly. Finally, you must also abide by all
pertinent local, state, and federal regulations.

Federal Registration of Pesticides

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "registers"
(licenses) thousands of pesticide products for use in and around homes. No
pesticide may legally be sold or used in the United States unless its label
bears an EPA registration number. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIRA), which governs the registration of pesticides,
prohibits the use of any pesticide product in a manner that is inconsistent
with the product labelling.


There is another important question to ask in making pest control
decisions: is there something on your premises that needlessly invites pest
infestations? The answer to this question may lead you to take some
common-sense steps to modify pest habitat.

* Remove water sources. All pests, vertebrate or invertebrate, need
water for survival. Fix leaky plumbing and do not let water accumulate
anywhere in your home. This means no water in trays under your house plants
overnight if you have a cockroach infestation.

* Remove food sources (if the pest's food is anything other than the
plant or animal you are trying to protect). For example, this could mean
storing your food in sealed glass or plastic containers, avoiding the habit
of leaving your pet's food out for extended periods of time, and placing your
refuse in tightly covered, heavy-gauge garbage cans.

* Remove or destroy pest shelter. Caulk cracks and crevices to control
cockroaches; remove piles of wood from under or around your home in order to
avoid attracting termites;

* Remove and destroy diseased plants, tree prunings, and fallen fruit
that might harbour pests.

* Remove breeding sites. The presence of pet manure attracts flies,
litter encourages rodents, and standing water provides a perfect breeding
place for mosquitoes.

* Remove sources of preventable stress to plants (flowers, trees,
vegetable plants, and turf). Plant at the optimum time of year. Use mulch to
reduce weed competition and maintain even soil temperature and moisture.
Provide adequate water.

* Use preventive cultural practices, such as careful selection of disease-resistant
seed or plant varieties, companion planting to exploit the insect-repellent
properties of certain plants, strategic use of "trap" crops to lure
pests away from crops you wish to protect, crop rotation and diversification,
and optimum use of spacing. Make sure you have good drainage and soil

Non-chemical Controls

If you practice preventive techniques such as those mentioned above,
you will reduce your chances, or frequency, of pest infestation. However, if
you already have an infestation, are there any pest control alternatives
besides chemical pesticides?

The answer is an emphatic "yes." One or a combination of
several non-chemical treatment alternatives may be appropriate. Your best
strategy depends on the pest and the site where the pest occurs.

Non-chemical alternatives include:

* Biological treatments, including predators such as purple martins,
praying mantises, and lady bugs; parasites; and pathogens such as bacteria,
viruses (generally not available to homeowners), and other micro organisms
like Bacillus thuringiensis and milky spore disease.

There is no way to be certain how long predators will stay in target
areas. Contact your County Extension Service for information about how to
protect desirable predators.

* Mechanical treatments, including cultivating to control weeds,
hand-picking weeds from turf and pests from plants, trapping to control
rodents and some insects, and screening living space to limit mosquito and
fly access.

Non-chemical pest control methods really work. They do have some
disadvantages: the results are not immediate, and it requires some work to
make a home or garden less attractive to pests. But the advantages of
non-chemical methods are many. Compared to chemical pesticide treatments,
such methods are generally effective for longer periods of time. They do not
create hardy, pesticide-resistant pest populations. And they can be used
without safeguards, because they pose virtually no hazards to human health or
the environment.

Chemical Controls

If you decide that chemical treatment can provide the best solution to
your pest problem, and you want to control the pests yourself rather than
turning the problem over to a professional pest control operator, then you
have an important decision to make: which product to choose. Before making
that decision, learn as much as you can about a product's active
ingredient--its biologically active agent. Is it "broad-spectrum"
in its mode of action (effective against a broad range of pests), or is it "selective"
(effective against only a few pest species)? How rapidly does the active
ingredient break down once it is introduced into the environment? Is it
suspected of causing chronic health effects? Is it toxic to non-target
wildlife and house pets? Is it known, or suspected, to leach through soil
into ground water?

Here again, your County Extension Service, reference books, pesticide
dealers, your state pesticide agency, or your regional EPA office may be able
to provide assistance. (Lists of State and EPA pesticide contacts are
provided at the end of this booklet.)

When you have narrowed your choices of active ingredients, you are
ready to select a pesticide product. Choose the least toxic pesticide that
can achieve the results you desire. Read the label. It lists active
ingredients, the target pests (for example, mites, flies, Japanese beetle
grubs, broad-leafed weeds, algae, etc.), and the sites where the product may
be used (for example, lawns, specific vegetable crops, roses, swimming pools,
etc.). Be sure the site of your pest problem is included among the sites
listed on the label.

Pesticide active ingredients are formulated in many ways. Choose the
formulation best suited to your site and the pest you are trying to control.
The most common types of home-use pesticide formulations include:

* Solutions, which contain the active ingredient and one or more
additives, and readily mix with water.

* Aerosols, which contain one or more active ingredients and a solvent.
They are ready for immediate use as is.

* Dusts, which contain active ingredients plus a very fine dry inert
carrier such as clay, talc, or volcanic ash. Dusts are ready for immediate
use and are applied dry.

* Granulars, which are similar to dusts, but with larger and heavier
particles for broadcast applications.

* Baits, which are active ingredients mixed with food or other
substances to attract the pest.

* Wettable powders, which are dry, finely ground formulations that
generally are mixed with water for spray application. Some also may be used
as dusts.

Depending on the type of formulation you choose, you may need to dilute
or mix the product. Prepare only the amount that you need for each
application; don't prepare larger amounts to store for possible future use.
(See "Determining Correct Dosage.")

Once you have identified the pest, selected the right pesticide, and
determined proper dosage, you are ready to use the product. Application
technique and timing are every bit as important as the material used, so read
the label for directions. That advice--to read the label--is repeated so
often in this guide that it may become tiresome. But in fact, the advice
cannot be repeated often enough. Read the label before you buy a product, and
again before you mix it, before you apply it, before you store it, and before
you throw it away. The directions on a label are there for a very good
reason: to help you achieve maximum benefits with minimum risk. But these
benefits depend upon proper use of the products.

Chemical pesticides also have their disadvantages. They must be used
very carefully to achieve results while protecting users and the environment.
The results are generally temporary, and repeated treatments may be required.

Therefore, to achieve best results when you do use chemical pesticides,
use preventive and non-chemical treatments along with them. This will reduce
the need for repeated applications.

You should always evaluate your pesticide use, comparing pre-treatment
and post-treatment conditions. You should weigh the benefits of short-term chemical
pesticide control against the benefits of long-term control using a variety
of techniques. Knowledge of a range of pest control techniques gives you the
ability to pick and choose among them. Pests, unfortunately, will always be
around us, and, if you know about all pest control options, you will know
what to do the next time THEY'RE THERE.

Tips for Handling Pesticides

Pesticides are not "safe." They are produced specifically
because they are toxic to something. By heeding all the following tips, you
can reduce your risks when you use pesticides.

* All pesticides legally marketed in the United States must bear an
EPA-approved label; check the label to make sure it bears an EPA registration

* Before using a pesticide, read the entire label. Even if you have
used the pesticide before, read the label again--don't trust your memory. Use
of any pesticide in any way that is not consistent with label directions and
precautions is subject to civil and/or criminal penalties.

* Do not use a "restricted use" pesticide unless you are a
formally trained, certified pesticide applicator. These products are too
dangerous to be used without special training.

* Follow use directions carefully. Use only the amount directed, at the
time and under the conditions specified, and for the purpose listed. Don't
think that twice the dosage will do twice the job. It won't. What's worse,
you may harm yourself, others, or whatever you are trying to protect.

* Look for one of the following signal words on the front of the label.
It will tell you how hazardous a pesticide is if swallowed, inhaled, or
absorbed through skin.

means highly poisonous;

means moderately hazardous;

means least hazardous.

* Wear the items of protective clothing the label requires: for
example, long sleeves and long pants, impervious gloves, rubber (not canvas
or leather) footwear, hat, and goggles. Personal protective clothing usually
is available at home building supply stores.

* If you must mix or dilute the pesticide, do so outdoors or in a
well-ventilated area. Mix only the amount you need and use portions listed on
the label.

* Keep children and pets away from areas where you mix or apply

* If a spill occurs, clean it up promptly. Don't wash it away. Instead,
sprinkle with sawdust, vermiculite, or kitty litter; sweep into a plastic
garbage bag; and dispose with the rest of your trash.

* Remove pets (including birds and fish) and toys from the area to be
treated. Remove food, dishes, pots, and pans before treating kitchen
cabinets, and don't let pesticides get on these surfaces. Wait until shelves
dry before refilling them.

* Allow adequate ventilation when applying pesticides indoors. Go away
from treated areas for at least the length of time prescribed by the label.
When spraying outdoors, close the windows of your home.

* Most surface sprays should be applied only to limited areas; don't
treat entire floors, walls, or ceilings.

* Never place rodent or insect baits where small children or pets can
reach them.

* When applying spray or dust outdoors, cover fish ponds, and avoid
applying pesticides near wells. Always avoid over-application when treating
lawn, shrubs, or gardens. Runoff or seepage from excess pesticide usage may
contaminate water supplies. Excess spray may leave harmful residues on
home-grown produce.

* Keep herbicides away from non-target plants. Avoid applying any
pesticide to blooming plants, especially if you see honeybees or other
pollinating insects around them. Avoid birds' nests when spraying trees.

* Never spray or dust outdoors on a windy day.

* Never smoke while applying pesticides. You could easily carry traces
of the pesticide from hand to mouth. Also, some products are flammable.

* Never transfer pesticides to containers not intended for them, such
as empty soft drink bottles. Keep pesticides in containers that clearly and
prominently identify the contents. Properly refasten all child proof caps.

* Shower and shampoo thoroughly after using a pesticide product. Wash
the clothing that you wore when applying the product separately from the
family laundry. To prevent tracking chemicals inside, also rinse boots and
shoes before entering your home.

* Before using a pesticide product, know what to do in case of
accidental poisoning.

* To remove residues, use a bucket to triple rinse tools or equipment,
including any containers or utensils used to mix the chemicals. Then pour the
rinse water into the pesticide container and reuse the solution by applying
it according to the pesticide product label directions.

* Evaluate the results of your pesticide use.

Determining Correct Dosage

So much information is packed on to pesticide labels that there is
usually no room to include examples of each dilution applicable to the
multitude of home-use situations. As a result, label examples may
inadvertently encourage preparation of more pesticide than is needed. The
excess may contribute to overuse, safety problems related to storage and
disposal, or simply wasted costs of unused pesticide.

Determining the correct dosage for different types of pesticides
requires some simple calculations. The following information can help you to
prepare the minimum quantity of pesticide needed for your immediate use

For example, the product label says, "For the control of aphids on
tomatoes, mix 8 fluid ounces of pesticide into 1 gallon water and spray until
foliage is wet." Your experience has been that your six tomato plants
require only one quart of pesticide to wet all the foliage. Therefore, only 2
fluid ounces of the pesticide should be mixed into 1 quart of water. Why?
Because a quart is one-fourth of a gallon, and 2 fluid ounces mixed into 1
quart make the same strength spray recommended by the label, but in a quantity
that can be used up all at once.

Consumers can solve problems similar to this one with careful
arithmetic, good measurements, and intelligent use of the information
provided here.

How to Measure

If you need to determine the size of a square or rectangular area, such
as a lawn for herbicide application, measure and multiply the length and
width. For example, an area 10 feet long by 8 feet wide contains 80 square
feet. Common area measurements may involve square yards (1 square yard = 9
square feet) or square feet (1 square foot = 144 square inches).

If you need to determine the volume of a space such as a room, measure
and multiply the room's length, width, and height. For example, a space 10
feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high contains a volume of 640 cubic feet.
You would use this procedure, for instance, for an aerosol release to control

Most residential-use pesticides are measured in terms of
volume. Some common equivalents are:

1 gallon (gal.)
= 128 fluid ounces (ft. oz.)
= 4 quarts (qt.)
= 8 pints (pt.)
= 16 cups

1 qt. = 32 ft. oz.
= 2 pt.
= 4 cups

1 pt. = 16 ft. oz.
= 2 cups

1 cup = 8 ft. oz.
1 tablespoon = 1/2 fl. oz.
= 3 teaspoons

1 teaspoon = 1/8 ft. oz.

In measuring teaspoons or tablespoons of pesticide, use only level spoonfuls,
and never use the same measuring devices for food preparation.

The following table provides examples to help you convert label
information to your specific use situations. "Amount" can be any
measure of pesticide quantity. However, the same unit of measure must be used
on both sides of the chart. For example, 8 fluid ounces per gallon of water
is equivalent to 2 fluid ounces per quart of water.

Not all dosage rates are included in the examples given here. For rates
not included, remember that, for pesticides not diluted with water,
proportionally change both the quantity of pesticide and the area, volume, or
number of items treated. For example, one-half pound per 1,000 square feet is
equivalent to one-quarter pound per 500 square feet. For a pesticide that is
diluted with water, proportionally change the quantity of pesticide, the
quantity of water, and the area, volume, or number of items treated. For
example, one-half pound of pesticide in 1 gallon of water applied to 1,000
square feet is equivalent to 1 pound of pesticide in 2 gallons of water
applied to 2,000 square feet.

There is a point at which measurements needed for smaller quantities of
pesticides are too minute to be accurately measured with typical domestic
measuring devices. In such cases, the user can either mix the larger volume,
realising that there will be leftover material; obtain a more accurate
measuring device, such as a graduated cylinder or a scale which measures
small weights; or search for an alternative pesticide or less concentrated
formulation of the same pesticide.

Correct Storage and Disposal

The following tips on home storage and disposal can help you handle
pesticides correctly.


* Buy only enough product to carry you through the use season, to
reduce storage problems.

* Store pesticides away from children and pets. A locked cabinet in a
well-ventilated utility area or garden shed is best.

* Store flammable liquids outside living quarters and away from an
ignition source.

* Never put pesticides in cabinets with, or near, food, medical
supplies, or cleaning materials. Always store pesticides in their original
containers, complete with labels that list ingredients, directions for use,
and antidotes in case of accidental poisoning. Never transfer pesticides to
soft drink bottles or other containers that children may associate with
something to eat or drink. Always properly refasten child-proof closures or

* Avoid storing pesticides in places where flooding is possible, or in
open places where they might spill or leak into the environment. If you have
any doubt about the content of a container, dispose of it with your trash.


* The best way to dispose of a small, excess amount of pesticide is to
use it--apply it--according to directions on the product label. If you cannot
use it, ask your neighbour whether he/she can use it. If all the pesticide
cannot be used, first check with your local health department or solid waste
management agency to determine whether your community has a household
hazardous waste collection program or any other program for handling disposal
of pesticides.

* If no community programs exist, follow label directions regarding
container disposal. To dispose of less than a full container of a liquid
pesticide, leave it in the original container, with the cap securely in place
to prevent spills or leaks. Wrap the container in several layers of
newspapers and tie securely. Then place the package in a covered trash can
for routine collection with municipal refuse. If you do not have a regular
trash collection service, take the package to a permitted landfill (unless
your municipality has other requirements).

Note: No more than one gallon of liquid pesticide should be disposed of
in this manner.

* Wrap individual packages of dry pesticide formulations in several
layers of newspaper, or place the package in a tight carton or bag, and tape
or tie it closed. As with liquid formulations, place the package in a covered
trash can for routine collection.

Note: No more than 5 pounds of pesticide at a time should be disposed
of in this manner.

* Do not pour leftover pesticides down the sink or into the toilet.
Chemicals in pesticides could interfere with the operation of wastewater
treatment systems or could pollute waterways, because many municipal systems
cannot remove all pesticide residues.

* An empty pesticide container can be as hazardous as a full one
because of residues remaining inside. Never reuse such a container. When
empty, a pesticide container should be carefully rinsed and thoroughly
drained. Liquids used to rinse the container should be added to the sprayer
or to the container previously used to mix the pesticide and used according
to label directions.

Empty product containers made of plastic or metal should be punctured
to prevent reuse. (Do not puncture or burn a pressurised product
container--it could explode.) Glass containers should be rinsed and drained,
as described above, and the cap or closure replaced securely. After rinsing,
an empty mixing container or sprayer may also be wrapped and placed in the

* If you have any doubts about proper pesticide disposal, contact your
state or local health department, your solid waste management agency, or the
regional EPA office.

How to Choose a Pest Control Company

Termites are chomping away at your house. Roaches are taking over your
kitchen. Mouse droppings dot your dresser drawer. You've got a pest control
problem, and you've decided that it's too serious for you to solve on your
own. You've decided you need a professional exterminator.

If you find yourself in a situation like this, what can you do to be
sure that the pest control company you hire will do a good job? Here are some
questions you can ask:

1. Does the company have a good track record?

Don't rely on the company salesman to answer this question; research
the answer yourself. Ask around among neighbours and friends; have any of
them dealt with the company before? Were they satisfied with the service they
received? Call the Better Business Bureau or local consumer office; have they
received any complaints about the company?

2. Does the company have insurance? What kind of insurance? Can the
salesman show some documentation to prove that the company is insured?

Contractor's general liability insurance, including insurance for
sudden and accidental pollution, gives you as a homeowner a certain degree of
protection should an accident occur while pesticides are being applied in
your home. Contractor's work men's compensation insurance can also help protect
you should an employee of the contractor be injured while working in your

In most states, pest control companies are not required to buy
insurance, but you should think twice before dealing with a company that is

3. Is the company licensed?

Regulatory agencies in some states issue state pest control licenses.
Although the qualifications for a license vary from state to state, at a
minimum the license requires that each company have a certified pesticide
applicator present in the office on a daily basis to supervise the work of
exterminators using restricted-use pesticides. (Certified applicators are
formally trained and "certified" as qualified to use or supervise
the use of pesticides that are classified for restricted use.) If restricted-use
pesticides are to be applied on your premises, make sure the pest control
operator's license is current. Also ask if the company's employees are

You may want to contact your state lead pesticide agency to ask about
its pesticide certification and training programs and to inquire if periodic
re certification is required for pest control operators.

In addition to the licenses required in some states, some cities also
issue pest control licenses. Again, qualifications vary, but possession of a
city license--where they are available--is one more assurance that the
company you are dealing with is reputable and responsible.

4. Is the company affiliated with a professional pest control

Professional associations--whether national, state, or local--keep
members informed of new developments in pest control methods, safety,
training, research, and regulation. They also have codes of ethics that
members agree to abide by. The fact that a company, small or large, chooses
to affiliate itself with a professional association signals its concern for
the quality of its work.

5. Does the company stand behind its work? What assurances does the
company make?

You should think twice about dealing with a company unwilling to stand
behind its work. Be sure to find out what you must do to keep your part of
the bargain. For example, in the case of termite control treatments, a
guarantee may be invalidated if structural alterations are made without prior
notice to the pest control company.

6. Is the company willing, and able, to discuss the treatment proposed
for your home?

Selecting a pest control service is just as important as selecting
other professional services. Look for the same high degree of competence you
would expect from a doctor or lawyer. The company should inspect your
premises and outline a recommended control program, including what pests are
to be controlled; the extent of the infestation; what pesticide formulation
will be used in your home and why; what techniques will be used in application;
what alternatives to the formulation and techniques could be used instead;
what special instructions you should follow to reduce your exposure to the
pesticide (such as vacating the house, emptying the cupboards, removing pets,
etc.); and what you can do to minimise your pest problems in the future.

Contracts should be jointly developed. Any safety concerns should be
noted and reflected in the choice of pesticides to be used. These concerns
could include allergies, age of occupants (infants or elderly), or pets. You
may want to get two to three, bids from different companies--by value, not
price. What appears to be a bargain may merit a second look.

Even after you have hired a company, you should continue your
vigilance. Evaluate results. If you have reason to believe that something has
gone wrong with the pesticide application, contact the company and/or your
state lead pesticide agency. Don't let your guard down, and don't stop asking

How to Reduce Your Exposure to Pesticides

Because chemical pesticides are so widely used in our society, and
because of the properties of many of the chemicals, low levels of pesticide
residues are found throughout the environment. Pesticides reach us in a
variety of ways--through food, water, and air.

In regulating pesticides, EPA strives to ensure that lawful use of
these products will not result in harmful exposures. Proper use of registered
products should yield residue levels that are well within established safety
standards. Therefore, the average American's exposure to low-level residues,
though fairly constant, should not cause alarm.

Still, many people want to learn what choices they can make to further
reduce their exposure to any potential risks associated with pesticides. By
limiting your exposure to these products, you can keep your risks to a

Below you will find descriptions of the main pathways of human exposure
to pesticides, as well as suggestions on ways to reduce overall exposure and
attendant risks. If, however, you suspect that you suffer from serious
chemical sensitivities, consult an expert to develop a more personally
tailored approach to managing this problem.

Exposure Through Food

Commercial Food

Throughout life--beginning even before birth--we are all exposed to
pesticides. A major source of exposure is through our diets. We constantly
consume small amounts of pesticides. Fruits and vegetables, as well as meat,
poultry, eggs, and milk, are all likely to contain measurable pesticide

EPA sets standards, called tolerances, to limit the amount of pesticide
residues that legally may remain in or on food or animal feed marketed in
U.S. commerce. Both domestic and imported foods are monitored by the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to
ensure compliance with these tolerances. Further, since pesticide residues
generally tend to degrade over time and through processing, residue
concentrations in or on most foods are well below legal tolerance levels by
the time the foods are purchased.

Although EPA does limit dietary pesticide exposure through tolerances,
you may wish to take extra precautions. You can take several steps to reduce
your exposure to residues in purchased food.

* Rinse fruit and vegetables thoroughly with water; scrub them with a
brush and peel them, if possible. Although this surface cleaning will not
remove "systemic" pesticide residues taken up into the growing
fruit or vegetable, it will remove most of the existing surface residues, not
to mention any dirt.

* Cook or bake foods to reduce residues of some (but not all)

* Trim the fat from meat and poultry. Discard the fats and oils in
broths and pan drippings, since residues of some pesticides concentrate in

Home-grown Food

Growing some of your own food can be both a pleasurable activity and a
way to reduce your exposure to pesticide residues in food. But, even here,
there are some things you may want to do to assure that exposure is limited.

* Before converting land in an urban or suburban area to gardening,
find out how the land was used previously. Choose a site that had limited (or
no) chemical applications and where drift or runoff from your neighbour's
activities will not result in unintended pesticide residues on your produce.
Choose a garden site strategically to avoid these potential routes of entry,
if possible.

If you are taking over an existing garden plot, be aware that the soil
may contain pesticide residues from previous gardening activities. These
residues may remain in the soil for several years, depending on the
persistence of the pesticides that were used. Rather than waiting for the
residues to decline naturally over time, you may speed the process.

* Plant an interim, non-food, crop like annual rye grass, clover, or
alfalfa. Such crops, with their dense, fibrous root systems, will take up
some of the lingering pesticide residues. Then discard the crops--don't work
them back into the soil--and continue to alternate food crops with cover
crops in the off season.

* During sunny periods, turn over the soil as often as every two to
three days for a week or two. The sunlight will help to break down, or photo
degrade, some of the pesticide residues.

Once you do begin gardening, develop strategies that will reduce your
need for pesticides while maintaining good crop yields.

* Concentrate on building your garden's soil, since healthy soil grows
healthy plants. Feed the soil with compost, manure, etc., to increase its
capacity to support strong crops.

* Select seeds and seedlings from hardy, disease-resistant varieties.
The resulting plants are less likely to need pesticides in order to flourish.

* Avoid monoculture gardening techniques. Instead, alternate rows of
different kinds of plants to prevent significant pest problems from

* Don't plant the same crop in the same spot year after year if you
want to reduce plant susceptibility to over-wintered pests.

* Become familiar with integrated pest management (IPM) techniques, so
that you can manage any pest outbreaks that do occur without relying solely
on pesticides.

* Mulch your garden with leaves, hay, grass clippings, shredded/chipped
bark, or seaweed. Avoid using newspapers to keep down weeds, and sewage
sludge to fertilise plants. Newsprint may contain heavy metals; sludge may
contain heavy metals and pesticides, both of which can leach into your soil.

Food from the Wild

While it might seem that hunting your own game, catching your own fish,
or gathering wild plant foods would reduce your overall exposure to
pesticides, this isn't necessarily so. Wild foods hunted, caught, or gathered
in areas where pesticides are frequently used outdoors may contain pesticide
residues. Migratory species also may contain pesticide residues if these
chemicals are used anywhere in their flyways.

Tolerances generally are not established or enforced for pesticides
found in wild game, fowl, fish, or plants. Thus, if you consume food from the
wild, you may want to take the following steps to reduce your exposure to
pesticide residues.

* Because wild game is very lean, there is less fat in which pesticides
can accumulate. However, avoid hunting in areas where pesticide usage is very

* Avoid fishing in water bodies where water contamination is known to
have occurred. Pay attention to posted signs warning of contamination.

* You may want to consult with fish and game officials where you plan
to hunt or fish to determine whether there are any pesticide problems
associated with that area.

* When picking wild plant foods, avoid gathering right next to a road,
utility right-of-way, or hedgerow between farm fields which probably have
been treated (directly or indirectly) with pesticides. Instead, seek out
fields that have not been used to produce crops, deep woods, or other areas
where pesticide use is unlikely.

* When preparing wild foods, trim fat from meat, and discard skin of
fish to remove as many fat-soluble pesticide residues as possible. For wild
plant foods, follow the tips provided for commercial food.

Exposure Through Water

Whether it comes from surface or ground water sources, the water
flowing from your tap may contain low levels of pesticides.

When pesticides are applied to land, a certain amount may run off the
land into streams and rivers. This runoff, coupled with industrial
discharges, can result in low-level contamination of surface water. In
certain hydrogeologic settings--for example, sandy soil over a ground water
source that is near the surface--pesticides can leach down through the soil
to the ground water.

EPA's Water Program sets standards and provides advisory levels for
pesticides and other chemicals that may be found in drinking water. Public
municipal water systems test their water periodically and provide treatment
or alternate supply sources if residue problems arise. Private wells
generally are not tested unless the well owner requests such analysis.

If you get your drinking water from a private well, you can reduce the
chance of contaminating your water supply by following these guidelines:

* Be cautious about using pesticides and other chemicals on your
property, especially if the well is shallow or is not tightly constructed.
Check with your EPA regional office or County Extension Service before using
a pesticide outdoors, to determine whether it is known or suspected to leach
to ground water. Never use or mix a pesticide near your well head.

* To avoid pesticide contamination problems, be sure your well extends
downward to aquifers that are below, and isolated from, surface aquifers, and
be sure the well shaft is tightly sealed. If you have questions about
pesticide or other chemical residues in your well water, contact your state
or county health department.

* If your well water is analysed and found to contain pesticide residue
levels above established or recommended health standards, you may wish to use
an alternate water source such as bottled water for drinking and cooking. The
best choice is distilled spring water in glass bottles. Ask your local
bottler for the results of a recent pesticide analysis.

Exposure Through Air

Outdoors, air currents may carry pesticides that were applied on
adjacent property or miles away. But there are steps you can take to reduce your
exposure to airborne pesticide residue, or drift, outdoors. To reduce your
exposure to airborne pesticides:

* Avoid applying pesticides in windy weather (when winds exceed 10
miles per hour).

* Use coarse droplet nozzles to reduce misting.

* Apply the spray as close to the target as possible.

* Keep the wind to your side so that sprays and dusts do not blow into
your face.

* If someone else is applying pesticides outdoors near your home, stay
indoors with your pets and children, keeping doors and windows closed. If it
is very windy during the pesticide application, stay inside for an hour or

* If pesticides are applied frequently near your home (if you live next
to fields receiving regular pesticide treatment), consider planting a buffer
zone of thick-branched trees and shrubs upwind to help serve as a buffer zone
and windbreak.

* Many local governments require public notification in advance of
area-wide or broad-scale pesticide spray activities and programs--through
announcements in newspapers, letters to area residents, or posting of signs
in areas to be treated. Some communities have also enacted "right to
know" ordinances which require public notification, usually through
posting, of lawn treatments and other small-scale outdoor pesticide uses. If
your local government does not require notifications, either for large- or
small-scale applications, you may want to work with local officials to
develop such requirements.

Indoors, the air you breathe may bear pesticide residues long after a
pesticide has been applied to objects in your home or office, or to indoor
surfaces and crawl spaces. Pesticides dissipate more slowly indoors than
outdoors. In addition, energy efficiency features built into many homes
reduce air exchange, aggravating the problem. To limit your exposure to
indoor pesticide residues:

* Use pesticides indoors only when absolutely necessary, and then use
only limited amounts. Provide adequate ventilation during and after
application. If you hire a pest control company, oversee its activities

* If pesticides are used inside your home, air out the house often,
since outdoor air generally is fresher and purer than indoor air. Open doors
and windows, and run overhead or whole-house fans to exchange indoor air for
outside air rapidly and completely.

* If pesticides have been used extensively and an indoor air
contamination problem has developed, clean--scrub--all surfaces where
pesticides may have settled, including cracks and crevices. Consult a
knowledgeable professional for advice on appropriate cleaning materials if
soap and water are insufficient.

Exposure Through Home Usage

Over a lifetime, diet is the most significant source of pesticide
exposure for the general public. However, on a short-term basis, the most
significant exposure source is personal pesticide use.

An array of pesticide products, ranging widely in toxicity and
potential effects, is available "off the shelf" to the private
user. No special training is required to purchase or use these products, and
no one is looking over the users' shoulder, monitoring their vigilance in
reading and following label instructions. Yet many of these products are
hazardous, especially if they are stored, handled, or applied improperly.

To minimise the hazards and maximise the benefits that pesticides
bring, exercise caution and respect when using any pesticide product.

* Consider pesticide labelling to be what it is intended to be: your
best guide to using pesticides safely and effectively.

* Pretend that the pesticide product you are using is more toxic than
you think it is. Take special precautions to ensure an extra margin of
protection for yourself, your family, and pets.

* Don't use more pesticide than the label says. You may not achieve a
higher degree of pest control, and you will certainly experience a higher
degree of risk.

* If you hire a pest control firm to do the job, ask the company to use
the least toxic or any chemical-free pest control means available that will
do the job. For example, some home pest control companies offer an
electro-gun technique to control termite and similar infestations by
penetrating infested areas and "frying" the problem pests without
using any chemicals.

* And remember: sometimes a non-pesticidal approach is as convenient
and effective as its chemical alternatives. Consider using such
non-pesticidal approaches whenever possible.

"Someone's Been Poisoned. Help!"

What To Do in a Pesticide Emergency

The potential for a pesticide to cause injury depends upon several

* Toxicity of the active ingredient. Toxicity is a measure of the
inherent ability of a chemical to produce injury. Some pesticides, such as
pyrethrins, have low human toxicity while others, such as sodium
fluoroacetate, are extremely toxic.

* Dose. The greater the dose of a specific pesticide, i.e. the amount
absorbed, the greater the risk of injury. Dose is dependent upon the absolute
amount of the pesticide absorbed relative to the weight of the person.
Therefore, small amounts of a pesticide might produce illness in a small
child while the same dose of the same pesticide in an adult might be
relatively harmless.

* Route of absorption. Swallowing a pesticide usually creates the most
serious problem. In practice, however, the most common route of absorption of
pesticides is through the skin and the most toxic pesticides have resulted in
death through this route of exposure.

* Duration of exposure. The longer a person is exposed to pesticides,
the higher the level in the body. There is a point at which an equilibrium
will develop between the intake and the output. Then, the level will no
longer continue to increase. However, this point may be either above or below
the known toxic level.

* Physical and chemical properties. The distribution and the rates of
breakdown of pesticides in the environment significantly alter the likelihood
that injury might occur.

* Population at risk. Persons who run the greatest danger of poisoning
are those whose exposure is highest, such as workers who mix, load, or apply
pesticides. However, the general public also faces the possibility of

Recognising Pesticide Poisoning

Like other chemicals, pesticides may produce injury externally or

External irritants may cause contact-associated skin disease primarily
of an irritant nature--producing redness, itching, or pimples--or an allergic
skin reaction, producing redness, swelling, or blistering. The mucous
membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat are also quite sensitive to chemicals.
Stinging and swelling can occur.

Internal injuries from any chemical may occur depending upon where a
chemical is transported in the body. Thus, symptoms are dependent upon the
organ involved. Shortness of breath, clear saliva, or rapid breathing may
occur as the result of lung injury. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, or
diarrhoea may result from direct injury to the gastrointestinal tract.
Excessive fatigue, sleepiness, headache, muscle twitching, and loss of
sensation may result from injury to the nervous system. In general, different
classes of pesticides produce different sets of symptoms.

For example, organophosphate pesticides may produce symptoms of
pesticide poisoning affecting several different organs, and may progress
rapidly from very mild to severe. Symptoms may progress in a matter of
minutes from slight difficulty with vision to paralysis of the diaphragm
muscle, causing inability to breathe.

Therefore, if someone develops symptoms after working with pesticides,
seek medical help promptly to determine if the symptoms are
pesticide-related. In certain cases, blood or urine can be collected for
analysis, or other specific exposure tests can be made. It is better to be
too cautious than too late.

It is always important to avoid problems by minimising your exposure
when mixing and applying pesticides by wearing gloves and other protective

The appropriate first aid treatment depends upon which pesticide was
used. Here are some tips for first aid that may precede, but should not
substitute for, medical treatment:

* Poison on skin. Drench skin with water and remove contaminated
clothing. Wash skin and hair thoroughly with soap and water. Dry victim and
wrap in blanket. Later, discard contaminated clothing or thoroughly wash it separately
from other laundry.

* Chemical burn on skin. Drench skin with water and remove contaminated
clothing. Cover burned area immediately with loose, clean, soft cloth. Do not
apply ointments, greases, powders, or other drugs. Later, discard or thoroughly
wash contaminated clothing separately from other laundry.

* Poison in eye. Eye membranes absorb pesticides faster than any other
external part of the body; eye damage can occur in a few minutes with some
types of pesticides. Hold eyelid open and wash eye quickly and gently with
clean running water from the tap or a hose for 15 minutes or more. Do not use
eye drops or chemicals or drugs in the wash water.

* Inhaled poison. Carry or drag victim to fresh air immediately. (If
proper protection is unavailable to you, call for emergency equipment from
the Fire Department.) Loosen victim's tight clothing. If the victim's skin is
blue or the victim has stopped breathing, give artificial respiration and
call rescue service for help. Open doors and windows so no one else will be
poisoned by fumes.

* Swallowed poison. A conscious victim should rinse his mouth with
plenty of water and then drink up to one quart of milk or water to dilute the
pesticide. Induce vomiting only if instructions to do so are on the label. If
there is no label available to guide you, do not induce vomiting. Never
induce vomiting if the victim is unconscious or is having convulsions.

In dealing with any poisoning, act fast; speed is crucial.

First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning

First aid is the first step in treating a pesticide poisoning. Study
the "Statement of Treatment" on the product label before you use a
pesticide. When you realise a pesticide poisoning is occurring, be sure the
victim is not being further exposed to the poison before calling for
emergency help. An unconscious victim will have to be dragged into fresh air.
Caution: do not become poisoned yourself while trying to help. You may have
to put on breathing equipment or protective clothing to avoid becoming the
second victim.

After giving initial first aid, get medical help immediately. This
advice cannot be repeated too often. Bring the product container with its
label to the doctor's office or emergency room where the victim will be
treated; keep the container out of the passenger space of your vehicle. The
doctor needs to know what chemical is in the pesticide before prescribing
treatment (information that is also on the label). Sometimes the label even
includes a telephone number to call for additional treatment information.

A good resource in a pesticide emergency is NPTN, the National
Pesticide Telecommunications Network, a toll-free telephone service.
Operators are on call 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, to provide information
on pesticides and on recognising and responding to pesticide poisoning. If
necessary they can transfer inquiries directly to affiliated poison control

National Pesticide Telecommunications Network
Call Toll-Free 1-800-858-7378

NPTN operators answer questions about animal as well as human
poisoning. To keep your pets from being poisoned, follow label directions on
flea and tick products carefully, and keep pets off lawns that have been
newly treated with weed killers and insecticides.

EPA is interested in receiving information on any adverse effects
associated with pesticide exposure. If you have such information, contact
Frank Davido, Pesticide Incident Response Officer, Field Operations Division
(H-7506C), Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA, 401 M Street, SW., Washington,
D C 20460. You should provide as complete information as possible, including
any official investigation report of the incident and medical records
concerning adverse health effects. Medical records will be held in

EPA Regional Offices and States Covered

EPA Region 1
JFK Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-3424

Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont

EPA Region 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
(212) 264-2515

New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

EPA Region 3
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 597-9370

Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
West Virginia, District of Columbia

EPA Region 4
345 Courtland Street, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-3004

Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee

EPA Region 5
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 353-2072

Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin

EPA Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202
(214) 655-2200

Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas

EPA Region 7
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
(913) 551-7003

Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska

EPA Region 8
One Denver Place
999 18th Street, Suite 1300
Denver, CO 80202-2413
(303) 293-1692

Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming

EPA Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
FTS 8-848-1305
DDD (415) 744-1305

Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, American Samoa, Guam,
Trust Territories of the Pacific

EPA Region 10
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
FTS 8-399-1107
DDD (206) 553-1107

Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

EPA Headquarters
401 M Street S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
(202) 382-4454

United States Environmental Protection Agency Regional Organization

Pesticide Agencies

Region 1
Dept. of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Waste Management, Pesticide Division
State Office Building
165 Capitol Avenue
Hartford, CT 06106
(203) 566-5148

Board of Pesticide Control
Dept. of Agriculture
State House -- Station 28
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 289-2731

Chief Pesticides Bureau
Dept. of Food and Agriculture
100 Cambridge Street, 21st Floor
Boston, MA 02202
(617) 727-3020

New Hampshire
Division of Pesticides Control
Dept. of Agriculture
Caller Box 2042
Concord, NH 03302-2042
(603) 271-3550

Rhode Island
Division of Agriculture and Marketing
Dept. of Environmental Management
22 Hayes Street
Providence, RI 02908
(401) 277-2781

Plant Industry Laboratory of Standards Division
Dept. of Agriculture
116 State St., State Office Bldg
Montpelier, VT 05602
(802) 828-2431

Region 2

New Jersey
Assistant Director,
Pesticide Control Program
NJ Dept. of Environmental Protection
380 Scotch Road CN 411
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 530-4123

New York
Bureau of Pesticides
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
Rm. 404, 50 Wolf Rd.
Albany NY 12233-7254
(518) 457-7482

Puerto Rico
Analysis & Registration of Agricultural Materials
Division of Laboratory
Puerto Rico Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 10163
Santurce, PR 00908
(809) 796-1715

Virgin Islands
Pesticide Programs
Division of Natural Resources Management
Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs
P.O. Box 4340
St. Thomas, VI 00801
(809) 773-0565

Region 3

Delaware Dept. of Agriculture
2320 S. DuPont Highway
Dover, DE 19901
(302) 739-4811

District of Columbia
Pesticide and Hazardous Waste Management Branch,
Environmental Control Division
Room 203
2100 Martin Luther King Avenue S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20020
(202) 404-1167

Pesticide Regulation Section
Maryland Dept. of Agriculture
50 Harry S. Truman Parkway
Annapolis, MD 21401
(301) 841-5710

Agronomic Services
Bureau of Plant Industry
PA Dept. of Agriculture
2301 N. Cameron Street
Harrisburg, PA 17110-9408
(717) 787-4843

Office of Pesticide Management
VA Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Service
P.O. Box 1163
Richmond, VA 23209
(804) 371-6558

West Virginia
Plant Pest Control Division
W VA Dept. of Agriculture
State Capitol Building
Charleston, WV 25305
(304) 348-2212

Region 4

Agricultural Chemistry/Plant Industry Division
Alabama Dept. of Agriculture and Industries
P.O. Box 3336
Montgomery, AL 36109-0336
(205) 242-2631

Pesticide Registration Section
Bureau of Pesticides
Division of Inspection
Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
3125 Conner Boulevard
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1650
(904) 487-0532

Agricultural Manager
Entomology and Pesticides Division
Dept. of Agriculture
19 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, S.W.
Atlanta, GA 30334
(404) 656-4958

Division of Pesticides
Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture
500 Metro Street, 7th Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
(502) 564-7274

Division of Plant Industry
Dept. of Agriculture & Commerce
P.O. Box 5207
Mississippi State, MS 39762
(601) 325-3390

North Carolina
Food & Drug Pesticide Section
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 27647
Raleigh NC 27611-0647
(919) 733-3556

South Carolina
Dept. of Fertiliser/Pest Control
256 Poole Agriculture Centre
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0394
(803) 656-3171

Plant Industries Division
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 40627, Melrose Station
Nashville, TN 37204
(615) 360-0130

Region 5

Bureau of Plant and Apiary Protection
Dept. of Agriculture
State Fair Ground
P.O. Box 19281
Springfield, IL 62794-9281
(217) 785-2427

Office of Health Regulation
Dept. of Public Health
535 West Jefferson
Springfield, IL 62761
(217) 782-4674

Office of the State Chemist
Dept. of Biochemistry
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(317) 494-1492

Pesticide and Plant Pest Management Division
Dept. of Agriculture
Ottawa Building
N. Tower, 4th Floor
611 W. Ottawa St.
P.O. Box 30017
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-1087

Division of Agronomy Services
Dept. of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55107
(612) 296-1161

Specialist in Charge of Pesticide Regulation
Division of Plant Industry
Dept. of Agriculture
8995 East Main St.
Reynoldsburg, OH 43068
(614) 866-6361

Groundwater and Regulatory Service Section
Dept. of Agriculture
Trade and Consumer Protection
801 West Badger Rd.
P.O. Box 8911
Madison, WI 53708
(608) 266-9459

Region 6

Division of Feed, Fertiliser & Pesticides
Arkansas State Plant Board
#1 Natural Resources Dr.
Little Rock, AR 72203
(501) 225-1598

Office of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Louisiana Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3596
Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3596
(504) 925-3763

New Mexico
Division of Agricultural and Environmental Services
N.M. State Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3005-3AQ 1
N.M. State University
Las Cruces, NM 88003
(505) 545-2133

Pest Management Section
Plant Industry Division
Oklahoma State Dept. of Agriculture
2800 N. Lincoln Blvd.
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
(405) 521-3864

Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Texas Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 12847
Austin, TX 78711
(512) 463-7534

Region 7

Pesticide Control Bureau Section
Iowa Dept. of Agriculture
Henry A. Wallace Building
E. 9th St. & Grand Ave.
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-8591

Plant Health Division
Kansas State Board of Agriculture
109 S.W. 9th Street
Topeka, KS 66612
(913) 296-2263

Bureau of Pesticide Control
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 630
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-2462

Bureau of Plant Industry
Nebraska Dept. of Agriculture
301 Centennial Mall South
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-2341

Region 8

Pesticide Applicator Section
Division of Plant Industry
Colorado Department of Agriculture
700 Kipling Street Ste 4000
Lakewood, CO 80215-5894
(303) 866-2838

Environmental Management Division
Montana Dept. of Agriculture
Agriculture-Livestock Building
Rm. 317 Capitol Station
6th & Roberts
Helena, MT 59620-0205
(406) 444-2944

North Dakota
Pesticide/Noxious Weed Division
N.D. Dept. of Agriculture
600 East Boulevard, 6th Floor
Bismarck, ND 58505-0020
(701) 224-4756

South Dakota
Division of Regulatory Services
S.D. Dept. of Agriculture
Anderson Bldg.,
445 East Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-3724

Division of Plant Industries
Utah Dept. of Agriculture
350 North Redwood Road
Salt Lake City, UT 84116
(801) 538-7123

Pesticide Division
Wyoming Dept. of Agriculture
2219 Carey Avenue
Cheyenne, WY 82002-0100
(307) 777-6590

Region 9

Agricultural Chemical & Environmental Services Division
AZ Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture
1688 West Adam's, Suite 103
Phoenix, AZ 85007
(602) 542-4373

State Chemist
Office of the State Chemist
P.O. Box 1586
Mesa, AZ 85211
(602) 833-5442

Executive Director
Structural Pest Control Commission
1150 S. Priest, Suite 4
Tempe, AZ 85281
(602) 255-3664

California Department of Pesticide Regulation
1220 "N" Street
Sacramento, CA 98514
(916) 322-6315

Division of Plant Industry
Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture
1428 South King Street
Honolulu, HI 96814-2512
(808) 548-7119

Division of Plant Industry
Nevada Dept. of Agriculture
350 Capitol Hill Avenue
P.O. Box 11100
Reno, NV 89510-1100
(702) 688-1180

Pesticide Enforcement Officer Guam
Environmental Protection Agency
130 Rojas Street
Harmon, GU 96910

American Samoa
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 366
Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Executive Officer
Trust Territory
Environmental Protection Board
Office of the High Commissioner
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Environmental Engineer
Division of Environmental Quality
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Dr. Torres Hospital
Saipan, Mariana Island 96950

Region 10

Bureau of Pesticides
Idaho Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 790
Boise, ID 83701
(208) 334-3243

Assistant Chief
Plant Division
Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
635 Capitol Street, N.E.
Salem, OR 97310-0110
(503) 378-3776

Assistant Director,
Pesticide Management Division
Washington Department of Agriculture
406 General Administration Building (AX-41)
Olympia, WA 98504
(206) 753-5062

Division of Environmental Health
Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation
P.O. Box "O"

Juneau, AK 99811-1800
(907) 465-2609

Pesticide Program Supervisor and Pesticide Specialist
500 South Alaska Street, Suite A
Juneau, AK 99645
(907) 465-2696

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